Relationship between Socioeconomic Factors and Incidence of Cosmetic Surgery in Tehran, Iran
Background: Cosmetic surgery accompanied with high economic cost is increasing in Iran. It is necessary to be aware about factors affecting cosmetic surgery in order to control its increasing trend. Therefore, we aimed to determine the factors affecting the incidence of cosmetic surgery in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: This survey was conducted on 2002 subjects between the ages of 15 to 60 yr using random digit dialing in Tehran, Iran 2015. Demographic data was collected from all of participants and in the presence of cosmetic surgery, the related cosmetic questions were asked in details. Cosmetic surgery was considered as an event and the incidence rate ratio for variables were estimated. For univariate analysis, Poisson regression was used as well as multi-level Poisson regression was used for multivariate analysis.
Results: Totally, 224 participants (11%) undergone cosmetic surgery. There was a significant relationship between the age at surgery of participants with the incidence of cosmetic surgery (P<0.001). Cosmetic surgery in women was 1.9 times greater than in men (P <0.001). Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) for the average and wealthy economic status in comparison to poor level was estimated (IRR=5.6, CI%95: 3.64,8.63) and (IRR=3.14, CI%95: 1.93,5.11), respectively. In addition, according to multivariate analysis all variables except the level of education and occupation, had significant relationship with the incidence of cosmetic surgery (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Cosmetic surgery was related to socioeconomic and demographic factors. Given the high economic burden of this unnecessary surgery, it can be effective to emphasize on awareness-raising programs for those are more likely to undergo cosmetic surgery.
2. Breuning EE, Oikonomou D, Singh P, et al (2010). Cosmetic surgery in the NHS: Applying local and national guidelines. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 63 (9): 1437-42.
3. Adedeji OA, Oseni GO, Olaitan PB (2014). Awareness and attitude of healthcare workers to cosmetic surgery in osogbo, Nigeria. Surg Res Pract, 2014:869567.
4. American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2016). Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank. Available from: https://www.surgery.org/sites/default/files/ASAPS-Stats2016.pdf
5. Akbari Sari A, Babashahy S, Olyaeimanesh A, Rashidian A (2012). Estimating the frequency and rate of first 50 common types of invasive procedures in iran healthcare system. Iran J Public Health, 41 (10): 60-4.
6. Rastmanesh R, Gluck ME, Shadman Z (2009). Comparison of body dissatisfaction and cosmetic rhinoplasty with levels of veil practicing in Islamic women. Int J Eat Disord, 42 (4): 339-45.
7. Zojaji R, Javanbakht M, Ghanadan A, et al (2007). High prevalence of personality abnormalities in patients seeking rhinoplasty. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 137 (1): 83-7.
8. Salehahmadi Z, Rafie SR (2012). Factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in bushehr, southern iran. World J Plast Surg, 1 (2): 99-106.
9. Schlessinger J, Schlessinger D, Schlessinger B (2010). Prospective demographic study of cosmetic surgery patients. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol, 3 (11): 30-5.
10. Prendergast TI, Ong'uti SK, Ortega G, et al (2011). Differential trends in racial preferences for cosmetic surgery procedures. Am Surg, 77 (8): 1081-5.
11. Milothridis P, Pavlidis L, Haidich AB, Panagopoulou E (2016). A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Indian J Plast Surg, 49 (3): 397-402.
12. Brown A, Furnham A, Glanville L, Swami V (2007). Factors that affect the likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Aesthet Surg J, 27 (5): 501-8.
13. Swami V, Arteche A, Chamorro-Premuzic T, et al (2008). Looking good: Factors affecting the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery. Eur J Plast Surg, 30 (5): 211-8.
14. Swami V (2009). Body appreciation, media influence, and weight status predict consideration of cosmetic surgery among female undergraduates. Body Image, 6 (4): 315-7.
15. Sarwer DB, Cash TF, Magee L, et al (2005). Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image. Plast Reconstr Surg, 115(3): 931-8.
16. Markey CN, Markey PM (2010). A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery. Body Image, 7 (2): 165-71.
17. Furnham A, Levitas J (2012). Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery. Can J Plast Surg, 20 (4):e47-50.
18. Parker R (2007). Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business? J Law Med, 15(1):14-8.
19. Alsarraf R, Larrabee WF, Jr., Johnson CM, Jr (2001). Cost outcomes of facial plastic surgery: regional and temporal trends. Arch Facial Plast Surg, 3 (1): 44-7.
20. Brick JM, Martin D, Warren P, Wivagg J (2003). Increased efforts in RDD surveys. Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods, 26-31.
21. Hallal PC, Simoes E, Reichert FF, et al (2010). Validity and reliability of the telephone-administered international physical activity questionnaire in Brazil. J Phys Act Health, 7 (3): 402-9.
22. Nedjat S, Hosseinpoor AR, Forouzanfar MH, et al (2012). Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in self-rated health in Tehran. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66 (6): 495-500.
23. Alharethy SE (2017). Trends and demographic characteristics of Saudi cosmetic surgery patients. Saudi Med J, 38(7): 738-41.
24. Ishigooka J, Iwao M, Suzuki M, et al(1998). Demographic features of patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 52(3):283-7.
25. Zahiroddin AR, Shafiee-Kandjani AR, Khalighi-Sigaroodi E (2008). Do mental health and self-concept associate with rhinoplasty requests? J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 61(9): 1100-3.
26. Von Soest T, Kvalem IL, Wichstrom L (2012). Predictors of cosmetic surgery and its effects on psychological factors and mental health: a population-based follow-up study among Norwegian females. Psychol Med, 42 (3): 617-26.
27. Golshani S, Mani A, Toubaei S, et al (2016). Personality and Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Surgery. Aesthetic Plast Surg, 40 (1): 38-47.
28. Demarest J, Allen R (2000). Body image: gender, ethnic, and age differences. J Soc Psychol, 140 (4): 465-72.
29. Li J, Li Q, Zhou B, Gao Y, Ma J, Li J (2016). Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation. Springerplus, 5(1): 1543.
30. Mousavizadeh SM, Shahraki FN, Hormozi AK, et al (2011). Evaluation of tendencies and motivations of female patients in cosmetic surgeries. Pajoohandejournal, 14 (6): 318-23.
31. Mirsardoo T, kaldi A, Ataei B (2011). Relationship between socio-cultural factors and tendency of women to undergo cosmetic surgery in Karaj. Woman and Study of Family, 3 (10): 145-164.
|Issue||Vol 50 No 2 (2021)|
|Plastic surgery Incidence rate Socioeconomic factor Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|