Review Article

Prevalence of Malocclusion in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Population: A Review Article


Background: The aim of this study was systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence in current and relevant literature about this developmental disorder to present the profile of malocclusion in Iran.

Methods: This review study was carried out with systematically identified and critically assessed studies reporting malocclusion prevalence among Iranian population in permanent dentition. National and international databases were searched for articles about prevalence of malocclusion by Angle classification in different regions of Iran from 1994 to 2015. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality of articles was checked by professional checklist. Data extraction and meta-analysis was performed. A random-effect model was employed. Publication bias was checked.

Results: Of 2768 articles, 21 cases were included .The pooled prevalence of malocclusion was about 87% (95% CI: 78.3–92.2) in Iranian population; however, the prevalence of malocclusion across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 23.7% to 99.7%). Prevalence of normal occlusion, class I, II and III malocclusion were reported as 13.3% (CI 95%: 7.8–21.7), 50.7% (CI 95%: 42.9-58.4), 21% (CI 95%: 17.5-25.1), 5.5% (CI 95%: 3-10); respectively. Maximum prevalence of malocclusion was in the East of Iran.

Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of malocclusion in Iranian population. The baseline information could be appropriately utilized for the future planning to meet the orthodontic treatment need among the Iranian population.



Graber L, Vanarsdall R, Vig K (2011). Orthodontics Current Principles and Techniques. 5th ed. Louis: Mosby.

Johal A, Cheung M, Marcenes W (2007). The impact of two different malocclusion traits on quality of life. Br Dent J, 202(2):E2.

Shaw W, Meek S, Jones D (1980). Nicknames, teasing, harassment and the salience of dental features among school children. Br J Orthod, 7(2):75-80.

Proffit W, Fields H (2000). Contemporary orthodontics. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby. 15 p.

Grimm S, Frazão P, Antunes JL, et al(2004). Dental injury among Brazilian schoolchildren in the state of São Paulo. Dent Traumatol, 20(3):134-8.

Petti S, Tarsitani G (1996). Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in Italian schoolchildren: prevalence and risk factors. Dent Traumatol, 12(6):294-7.

Geiger AM (2001). Malocclusion as an etiologic factor in periodontal disease: a retrospective essay. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 120(2):112-5.

Basafa M, Shahabi M (2006). Prevalence of TMJ disorders among students and its relation to malocclusion. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 18(45):53-9.

Ghafournia M, Tehrani MH (2012). The Relationship Between Bruxism and malocclusin among preschool childrens in Isfahan. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects, 6(4):138-42.

Komazaki Y, Fujiwara T, Ogawa T, et al (2014). Association between malocclusion and headache among 12‐to 15‐year‐old adolescents: a population‐based study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 42(6):572-80.

Brin l, Zwilling-Sellam O, Harari D, et al (1998). Does a secular trend exist in the distribution of occlusal patterns? Angle Orthod, 68(1):81-4.

Frazão P, Narvai PC (2006). Socio-environmental factors associated with dental occlusion in adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 129(6):809-16.

Angle E (1907). Malocclusion of the teeth. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Whith Manufacturing Co.

Akhondi M (1997). The prevalence of malocclusions in the male students of elementary schools of Karaj. J Dent Med Tehran Univ Med Sci 1:9-19.

Azarbayejani S, Mirsafaei R, Maghsoudi S, et al (2015). Relationship between different types of malocclusion and sex and age in students in Isfahan. J Isfahan Dent Sch 11(2):143-52.

Arabiun H, Mirzaye M, Dehghani-Nazhvani A, et al (2014). The prevalence of malocclusion among 14-18 years old students in Shiraz. J Oral Health Oral Epidemiol, 3(1):8-11.

Ordoobazari M et al. Prevalence of dento-alveolar malocclusion and facial deformity in 12-15 years old children in Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 1994.

Moosazadeh M, Nekoei‐moghadam M, Emrani Z, et al(2014). Prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in Iran: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Int J Health Plann Manage, 29(3):e277-90.

Higgins JP (2008). Commentary: Heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be expected and appropriately quantified. Int J Epidemiol, 37(5):1158-60.

Wang P, Liu H, Jiang T, et al(2015). Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Adult Myeloid Disease: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 10(9):e0137300

Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, et al(2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ, 327:557.

Begg CB, Mazumdar M (1994). Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics, 50(4):1088-101.

Shahri F, Khosrawi Khosrovshahi A (2003). Prevalence of ideal occlusion and dental malocclusion in 12-13 years old students in Zahedan. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 5(3):165-70.

Akhundi M (2000). Assessment of prevalence of occlusal relation in 11-13 year-old students in Mehran in 1997. J Dent Shahid Beheshti Univ, 12(4):91-101.

Aghili H, Tude M, Hedayati Far A, et al (2007). Assesment of prevalence of malocclusion in 12-15 year old urban students of Yazd. Yazd University of Medical Sciences-, Yazd, Iran.

Nazir R, Hussain A, Kaleem M (2012). Oral health status and malocclusion in flood affected and internally displaced children in Pakistan. Pak Oral Dent J, 32:110-4.

Celikoglu M, Akpinar S, Yavuz I (2010). The pattern of malocclusion in a sample of orthodontic patients from Turkey. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 15(5):e791-6.

Singh VP, Sharma A (2014). Epidemiology of Malocclusion and Assessment of Orthodontic Treatment Need for Nepalese Children. Int Sch Res Notices, 2014:768357.

Aikins E, Onyeaso C (2014). Prevalence of malocclusion and occlusal traits among adolescents and young adults in Rivers State, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop, 37(145):5-12.

Gamer A. Prevalence of Malocclusion in University of Khartoum Students. Graduate College: Univ Khartoum 2015.

Laganà G, Masucci C, Fabi F, et al(2013). Prevalence of malocclusions, oral habits and orthodontic treatment need in a 7-to 15-year-old schoolchildren population in Tirana. Prog Orthod, 14:12.

Proffit W, Fields H, Sarver D, et al(2012). Contemporary orthodontics. 5rd ed: Mosby.P:8.

Helm S (1968). Malocclusion in Danish children with adolescent dentition: an epidemiologic study. Am J Orthod, 54(5):352-66.

Bugaighis I (2013). Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children. J Orthod Sci, 2(2):50-4.

Silva RG, Kang DS (2001). Prevalence of malocclusion among Latino adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 119(3):313-5.

Goose DH, Thompson DG, Winter FC (1957). Malocclusion in school children of the West Midlands. Br Dent J, 102:174-8.

Wood BF (1971). Malocclusion in the modern Alaskan Eskimo. Am J Orthod, 60(4):344-54.

Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, et al (2001). Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod, 23(2):153-67.

Proffit WR, Fields HW Jr, Moray LJ (1998). Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in the United States: estimates from the NHANES III survey. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg, 13(2):97-106.

SCLARE R (1945). Orthodontics and the school child: a survey of 680 children. Br Dent J, 79:278-80.

Thilander B, N M (1973). The prevalence of malocclusion in Swedish schoolchildren. Scand J Dent Res, 81(1):12-21.

Grewe JM, Cervenka J, Shapiro BL, et al(1968). Prevalence of malocclusion in Chippewa Indian children. J Dent Res, 47(2):302-5.

Homan B, Davies G (1973). An oral health survey of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in far North Queensland. Aust Dent J, 18(2):75-87.

El-Mangoury NH, Mostafa YA (1990). Epidemiologic panorama of dental occlusion. Angle Orthod, 60(3):207-14.

Saleh F (1999). Prevalence of malocclusion in a sample of Lebanese schoolchildren: an epidemiological study. East Mediterr Health J Dent Med, 5:337-43.

Diagne F, Ba I, Ba‐Diop K, et al(1993). Prevalence of malocclusion in Senegal. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 21(5):325-6.

Isiekwe MC (1983). Malocclusion in Lagos, Nigeria. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 11(1):59-62.

Ng'ang'a PM, Ohito F, Øgaard B, et al(1996). The prevalence of malocclusion in 13-to 15-year-old children in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand, 54(2):126-30.

Hardy DK, Cubas YP, Orellana MF (2012). Prevalence of angle class III malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open J Epidemiol 2:75-82.

Garner L, Butt M (1985). Malocclusion in black Americans and Nyeri Kenyans: an epidemiologic study. Angle Orthod, 55(2):139-46.

Soh J, Sandham A, Chan YH (2005). Occlusal status in Asian male adults: prevalence and ethnic variation. Angle Orthod, 75(5):814-20.

Tang E (1994). Occlusal features of Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Aust Orthod J, 13(3):159-63.

Woon K, Thong Y, Abdul KR (1989). Permanent dentition occlusion in Chinese, Indian and Malay groups in Malaysia. Aust Orthod J, 11(1):45-8.

Lew K, Foong W, Loh E (1993). Malocclusion prevalence in an ethnic Chinese population. Aust Dent J, 38(6):442-9.

Tang E (1994). The prevalence of malocclusion amongst Hong Kong male dental students. Br J Orthod, 21(1):57-63.

Ramazanzadeh BA, Keyhaninejad M, Nikian Y (1996). Evaluation of prevalence of dental malocclusion in junior high schools in Kerman city during 1995-96. J Kerman Univ Med Sci, 3(4):185-90.

Bashirinejadian M, Alizadeshani H, et al (1997). Prevalence of dento-alveolar malocclusion in 12-17 years old children in Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci, 1(2):29-38.

Ravanmehr H, Rashidi Birgani M (1998). A Study on prevalence of detofacial anomalies in 12 to 14 years old students inTehran. J Dent Med, 11(3):38-45.

Hedayati Z, Taherizade H, Mohammadi S (1998). Evaluation and Prevalence of malocclusion in 13-15 years old students of Shiraz. J Mashhad Dent Sch, 22:85-97.

Ghodsi A, Fayegh M. Clinical assessment of prevalence of malocclusion in 14-17 year-old students of number 3 provincial educational region in Isfahan: Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; 1998.

Khanehmasjedi M, Basir L (2004). A study on prevalence of dentofacial anomalies according to Angle Classification in 11-14 year old boy students in ahvaz 2002. Jundishapur Sci Med J, 42(2):20-5.

Ramezanzadeh B, Hosseini S (2005). Evaluation of prevalence of dental malocclusion in students of junior high school students in the city of neishabour in year 2002-2003. J Mashhad Dent Sch, 29(1-2):57-66.

Taheri J, Baharvand M, Gholami Kuhestani M (2003). Assesment of oral health in students of 13-15 year-old in Rezvanshahr in 2001. Dent J Shahid Beheshti Univ, 15(3):59-67.(In Persian)

Ahangar Atashi M (2007). Prevalence of malocclusion in 13-15 year-old adolescents in Tabriz. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects,1(1):13-8.

Mirzaye M, Arabiun H. Prevalence of malocclusion among 14-18 years old students in Shiraz. The preliminary program for IADR 2nd African and Middle East Regional Conference 2009.

Jafari A, Kowsari A, Mahmoodian J, et al (2008). The prevalence of occlusion classification of permanent dentition in Tehran's students age 12 to 13 years. Acta Med Iran, 46(5):423-8.

Koochmeshgi L, Hosseinzadeh Nik T, Kharrazi FM (2007). Assesment of prevalence of dentofacial deformity and orthodontic treatment need in 12 year old students of Karaj. Iran J Epidemiol, 3(4):29-34.

Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F (2009). Malocclusion and occlusal traits in an urban Iranian population. An epidemiological study of 11-to 14-year-old children. Eur J Orthod, 31(5):477-84.

Fallahi Nezhad Ghajari M, Rashidi Fard H (1999). Assessment of Epidemiology of malocclusion in 9 and 12 year old stu-dents of Khorram abad. Dent J Shahid Be-heshti Univ, 11(1):35-45.

IssueVol 47 No 2 (2018) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Dental malocclusion Prevalence Angle classification Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
ESLAMIPOUR F, AFSHARI Z, NAJIMI A. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Population: A Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 2018;47(2):178-187.