Scorpions and Their Human Mortality Report in Iran: A Review Article

  • Faranak FIROOZFAR Vector-Borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
  • Abedin SAGHAFIPOUR Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  • Nahid JESRI Remote Sensing & GIS Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The scorpions have enjoyed medical importance from ancient times because of their morphological structure and venom. The identification of the species of these arthropods has been more emphasized than any other aspects. The purpose of this study was to determine scorpion’s fauna and mortality rates of their victims as reported in Iran.

Methods: In this review, published documents during 1966–2018 related to medically important scorpions and mortality reports due to scorpionism were searched in the data bases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and etc., using key words including scorpion, species, classification, Iran, family, species, and the names of all 31 provinces of Iran.

Results: Overall, 169 sources were found. Based on the STROBE checklist, the quality of the documents was also considered, and ultimately, 95 sources were selected. Sixty-four species of scorpions have been identified in Iran and 86% of the species belong to the Buthidae family, and the rest (9.5%, 4.5%) belong to the Hemiscorpiidae and Scorpionidae families, respectively. These species live mostly in tropical regions of Iran. The dangerous scorpions and their mortality reports are often recorded from southern regions such as Khuzestan and Hormozgan provinces.

Conclusion: Due to the significant increase in the abundance of scorpions in Iran over the past 30 years, it is expected that this trend will continue by researchers, and the fauna of scorpions is regularly reconsidered.

 

References

1. Dehghani R, Ghannaee Arani M (2015). Scorpion sting prevention and treatment in ancient Iran. J Tradit Complement Med, 5(2):75-80.
2. Chippaux JP, Goyffon M (2008). Epidemi-ology of scorpionism: a global appraisal. Acta Trop, 107(2):71-79.
3. Ramires EN, Navarro-Silva AM, Assis Marques F (2011). Chemical Control of Spiders and Scorpions in Urban Areas, Pesticides in the Modern World, Margari-ta Stoytcheva, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/16562.
4. Shahi M, Azizi K, Ansarian N (2009). Study on Scorpion Fauna in endanger area of Hormozgan province 2006-2007. J Hor-mozgan Univ Med Sci,12: 207-214.
5. Dehghani R, Fathi B (2012). Scorpion sting in Iran: Areview.Toxicon, 60(5):919-933.
6. Polis GA (1990). The biology of scorpions. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 587 pages.
7. Sharifinia N, Gowhari I, Hoseiny-Rad M et al (2017). Fauna and Geographical Distri-bution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 11(2): 242–248.
8. Kovařík F (1997). Results of the Czech Bio-logical Expedition to Iran. Part 2. Arach-nida: Scorpiones, with descriptions of Iranobuthus krali gen. n. et sp. n. and Hottentotta zagrosensis sp. n. (Buthidae). Acta Soc Zool Bohem, 61: 39–52.
9. Mirshamsi O, Sari A, Hosseinie S (2011). History of study and checklist of the scorpion fauna (Arachnida: Scorpiones) of Iran. Progress in Biological Sci, 2011; 1(2):16-23.
10. Dehghani R, Motevali Haghi F, Yousef Mogaddam M et al (2016). Review study of scorpion classification in Iran. J Ento-mol Zool Stud, 4(5): 440-444.
11. de Albuquerque CMR, de Lima Santana Ne-to P, Amorim MLP et al (2013). Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae) in State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop, 46(4): 484-489.
12. Nejati J, Mozafari E, Saghafipour A et al (2014). Scorpion fauna and epidemiologi-cal aspects of scorpionism in southeast-ern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 4(1): S217-221
13. Dehghani R, Rafinejad J, Fathi B et al (2017). A Retrospective Study on Scropionism in Iran (2002–2011). J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 11(2): 194–203.
14. Amiri M, Naderi Lordjani M, Asgarpour H (2018). Epidemiological Study of Scorpi-on Sting in Lordegan City during the Years 2014-2017. J Community Health Res, 2018; 7(1): 57-61.
15. Dehghani R, Takhtfiroozeh M, Kanani F et al (2014). Case report of Stomoxys calci-trans bites in residential area of Kashan, Iran. J Mazand Univ Med Sci, 23(110): 257-261.
16. Rafizadeh S, Rafinejad J, Rassi Y (2013). Ep-idemiology of Scorpionism in Iran during 2009. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 7(1):66-70.
17. Dehghani R, Sharif A, Assadi MA et al (2016). Fungal flora in the mouth of ven-omous and non-venomous snakes. Comp Clin Pathol, 25(6):1207-1211.
18. Mashhadi I, Kavousi Z, Peymani P et al (2017). Economic Burden of Scorpion Sting and Snake Bite from a Social Per-spective in Iran. Shiraz E-Med J, 18(8): e57573.
19. Dehghani R, Fathi B, Shahi MP, et al (2014). Ten years of snakebites in Iran. Toxicon, 90 (2014):291-298.
20. Dehghani R, Mehrpour O, Shahi MP et al (2014). Epidemiology of venomous and semi-venomous snakebites (Ophidia: Vi-peridae, Colubridae) in the Kashan city of the Isfahan province in Central Iran. J Res Med Sci, 19(1):33-40.
21. Akbarzadeh K, Saghafipour A, Jesri N et al (2018). Spatial Distribution of Necro-phagous Flies of Infraorder Muscomor-pha in Iran Using Geographical Infor-mation System. J Med Entomol, 55(5):1071-1085.
22. Vandenbroucke JP, VonElm E, Altman DG et al (2007). Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiolo-gy (STROBE). Epidemiology, 18:805-835.
23. Navidpour S, Soleglad ME, Fet V et al (2008). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part II. Bushehr Province. Euscorpius, 67(2008): 1-33.
24. Motevalli Haghi F, Dehghani R (2017). A Review of Scorpions Reported in Iran. Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 27(151): 213- 226.
25. Vazirianzadeh B, Farhadpour F, Hosseinza-deh M et al (2012). An Epidemiological and Clinical Study on Scorpionism in Hospitalized Children in Khuzestan, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 6(1): 62–69.
26. Ramezani Avval Riabi H, Matlabi M, Raf-inejad J et al (2010). The Ecofaunistics of Scorpions in Gonabad. Ofogh-e-Danesh J, 15(4):54-61.
27. Mogaddam MY, Dehghani R, Enayati AA et al (2016). Scorpion Fauna (Arachnida: Scorpiones) in Darmian County, Iran (2015-2016). Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 26(144): 108-118.
28. Dehghani R, Moabed S, Kamyabi F et al (2008). Scorpions Fauna of Kerman Province-IRAN. J Kerman Univ Med Sci, 15(2): 172-181.
29. Nejati J, Saghafipour A, Mozaffari E et al (2017). Scorpions and scorpionism in Iran’s central desert. Acta Tropica, 166: 293–298.
30. Saghafipour A, Noroozi M, Karami Jooshin M (2013). The Epidemiologic Status of Scorpion Stings in Qom Province, 2001-2011. Safety Promot Inj Prev, 1(2): 95-101.
31. Nejati J, Saghafipour A, Rafinejad J et al (2018). Scorpion composition and scor-pionism in a high-risk area, the southwest of Iran. Electronic Physician, 10(7): 7138-7145.
32. Lourenço WR (1998). A new species of Apisthobuthus Finnegan, 1932 (Chelicer-ata, Scorpiones, Buthidae) from Iran. Ent Mitt Zool Mus Hamburg, 12: 237-244.
33. Navidpour S, Kovařík F, Soleglad ME et al (2008). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part I. Khuzestan Province. Euscorpius, 65: 1-41.
34. Navidpour S, Lowe G (2010). Revised diag-nosis and redescription of Apistobuthus susanae (Scorpiones, Buthidae). J Arach-nol, 37(1): 45-59.
35. Kovařík F (2005). Taxonomic position of species of the genus Buthacus Birula, 1908 described by Ehrenberg and Lou-renço and description of a new species (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Euscorpius, 28: 1-13.
36. Lourenço WR, Vachon M (2001). A new species of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 from Iran (Scorpiones: Buthidae). In: Scorpions 2001. In Memoriam Gary A. Polis., Fet V, Selden PA ed. (British Arachnological Society: Burnham Beech-es, Bucks, UK), 179-182.
37. Kovařík F (2003). Eight new species of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 from Afri-ca and Asia (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Ser-ket, 8(3): 87-112.
38. Navidpour S, Fet V, Kovařík F et al (2008). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpi-ones). Part III. Ilam Province. Euscorpius, 69: 1-29.
39. Vignoli V, Kovařík F, Crucctti P (2003). Scorpiofauna of Kashan (Esfahan Prov-ince, Iran) (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Euscorpius, 9: 1-7
40. Vignoli V, Crucitti P (2005). Notes on the scorpion diversity (Arachnida, Scorpi-ones) of the Yazd province, central Iran. Acta Mus Moraviae Sci Biol, 90: 1-11.
41. Navidpour S, Ezatkhah M, Kovařík F et al (2011). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part VII. Kerman Province. Euscorpius, 131: 1-32.
42. Birula AA (1905). Beiträge zur Kenntriss der Skorpionenfauna Persien (3. Beiträge). Bull Imp Acad Sci Saint - Pétersbourg sér, 23: 119-148.
43. Sissom WD, Fet V (1998). Redescription of Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from Southwestern Asia. J Arachnol, 26(1): 1-8.
44. Navidpour S, Kovařík F, Soleglad ME et al (2008). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part IV. Kohgilouyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province. Euscorpius, 74: 1-24.
45. Pirali-Kheirabadi K, Navidpour S, Fet V et al (2009). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part V. Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari Province. Euscorpius, 78: 1-23.
46. Kassiri H, Kasiri N, Dianat A (2015). Species composition, sex ratio, geographical dis-tribution, seasonal and monthly activity of scorpions and epidemiological features of scorpionism in Zarrin-dasht County, Fars Province, Southern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 5(1): S99-S103.
47. Akbari A, Tabatabai SM, Malekkhah A et al (2001). A study of fauna of scorpions in Kohkilueyeh & BoirAhmad and Cha-harMahal - E- Bakhtiari provinces. Pajou-hesh-va-Sazandegi, 14(3): 24-27.
48. Navidpour S, Nayebzadeh HH, Soleglad ME et al (2010). Scorpions of Iran (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part VI. Lorestan Province. Euscorpius, 99: 1-23
49. Dehghani R, Dinparastjadid N, Shahbazza-deh D et al (2008). Study on scorpion sting in Khuzestan. Feyz, 12:68–74.
50. Shahi M, Moosavy SH, Hanafi-Bojd AA et al (2016). Spatial Distribution of Scorpion Sting in a High-Risk Area of Southern Iran. J Med Entomol, 53(5): 1198–1204.
51. Navidpour S, Masihipour B (2009). Study of morphometrical values of Iranobuthus krali (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Fars province, southern Iran. Arch Razi Inst, 64: 97-100.
52. Vignoli V (2005). Description of a new spe-cies of Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from southern Iran. Zool Middle East, 34(1): 79–86.
53. Pocock RI (1900). Arachnida. In: Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Blandford WT ed. (Taylor and Francis: London), p.279.
54. Pirali Kheirabadi K, Khalaji-Pirbalouty V, Jazayeri A (2014). Geographical distribu-tion of scorpions in Chaharmahal va Bakhteyari Province. Veterinary Journal, 103: 44-51.
55. Kovařík F (2007). A revision of the genus Hottentotta Birula, 1908, with descrip-tions of four new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Euscorpius, 58: 1–107.
56. Vachon M (1966). Liste des scorpions con-nus en Egypte, Arabie, Israël, Liban, Syrie, Jordanie, Turquie, Irak, Iran. Toxi-con, 4: 209-218.
57. Farzanpay R (1987). Knowing scorpions. Central UniversityPublications: Tehran, No. 312, Biology 4, in Persian, withLatin index), p.231.
58. Taherian MR (2004). Taherian M R. Identifi-cation and determination of Lorestan scorpions funa. Yafte, 5 (1) :43-46
59. Nazari M, Rastgar H (2016). Study on Dis-tribution of Scorpions to Provide Preven-tion and Interventions in Combating Scorpionism in Poldokhtar County, Lorestan Province, Iran. J Clin Diagn Res,10 (12):LC05-LC09.
60. Mohammadi Bavani M, Rafinejad J, Hanafi-Bojd AA et al (2017). Spatial Distribution of Medically Important Scorpions in North West of Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 11(3): 371–382.
61. Moradi GHarakhoo M, Asadvand Heydara-bad S, Aydın Yagmur E (2018). The scorpion fauna of West Azerbaijan Prov-ince in Iran (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Bi-harean Biologist, 12 (2): 84-87.
62. Gowhari I, Pashaei Rad SH, Navidpour S et al (2012). Study on Fauna Scorpion of Ilam Province, Western of Iran. Experi-mental Animal Biol, 1(2):43-47.
63. Navidpour S (2008). Description study of Compsobuthus (Vachon, 1949) species in South and Southwestern Iran (Scorpi-ones: Buthidae). Arch Razi Inst, 63: 29-37
64. Fet V (1987). On Kraepelinia palpator (Biru-la, 1903) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) found at East Iran. Proc Acad Sci Turkmen, sér Biol, 1: 1-91.
65. Habibi T (1971). Liste de scorpions de l'Iran. Bull Fac Sci Teheran Univ 2: 42-47 (In French and Farsi).
66. Ghorbani E, Mohammadi Bavani M, Jafar-zadeh S et al (2018). Spatial Distribution of Scorpionism in Ardabil Province, North West of Iran. Int J Pediatr, 6(9): 8241-8251.
67. Karimi O, Tabatabaei SM, Akbari A (2001). A survey on snakes and scorpions fauna in Yazd Province. Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi13 (4): 113–115.
68. Dehghani Tafti MH, Tirgari S (1998). Identi-fication of Yazd scorpions and biological study of prevailing species. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci, 6(4): 72–77.
69. Akbari A, Taabatabaei M, Modir Roosta H et al (1997). Study on geographical distri-bution of scorpions in south parts of Iran. Pazhohesh va sazandegi, 34:115–112.
70. Fekri S, Badzohre A, Safari R et al (2012). Species identification and geographic dis-tribution of scorpions in Jask town coun-ty, Hormozgan province. Hormozgan Med J, 16(2):135-142.
71. Vatani H, Khoobdel M (2009). Scorpion fauna in Taybad region and scorpion sting status in military environment. J Mil-itary Med, 11(1):7-11.
72. Gholizadeh S, Lalehzari E, Mohammadi Ba-vani M et al (2016). Bioecology and scor-pion envenomation in Ramshir district, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Appl Entomol Zool, 51(1): 37–42.
73. Mirshamsi O, Sari A, Elahi E et al (2011). Mesobuthus eupeus (Scorpiones: Buthi-dae) from Iran: A polytypic species com-plex. Zootaxa, 2929(2929): 1-21.
74. Fet V, Lowe G (2000). Family Buthidae C.L. Koch, 1837.In: Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758–1998), Fet V, Sissom W D, Lowe G, Braunwalder M E ed. (New York Entomological Society: New York), 54–286.
75. Azghadi S, Mirshamsi O, Navidpour S et al (2014). Scorpions of the genus Odonto-buthus Vachon, 1950 (Scorpiones: Buthi-dae) from Iran: Phylogenetic relationships inferred from mitochondrial DNA se-quence data. Zool Middle East, 60(2): 169-179.
76. Mirshamsi O, Azghadi S, Navidpour S et al (2013). Odontobuthus tirgari sp. nov. (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from the eastern region of the Iranian Plateau. Zootaxa, 3731(1):153-170.
77. Navidpour S (2015). An annotated checklist of scorpions in south and southwestern parts of Iran. Inter J Fauna and Biol Stud, 2(3): 9-15.
78. Dehghani R, Kamiabi F, Mohammadzadeh N (2017). Burrowing Habits of two Ar-thropods; Odenthobutus doriae and Hemilepistus shirazi in desert soils of Is-fahan, Iran. J Entomol Res, 41(2):113.
79. Dehghani R, Kamiabi F (2017). Frequency of Odonthubutus doriae Thorell 1876nests in desert soils, Esfahan, Iran. J Entomol Res, 41(1): 13-18.
80. Dehghani R, Kassiri H (2017). Geographical Distribution of Scorpion Odontobuthus doriae in Esfahan Province, Central Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis, 11(3): 433-440.
81. Jafari N, Moradi M, Moradi Ghrakhloo P et al (2015). Scorpion Fauna of Alborz Province, Iran (Arachnida: Scorpiones). J Applied Biological Sci, 9(2): 83-85.
82. Nazari M, Bahrami D, Davari B et al (2015). Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013). Avicenna J Clin Med, 22(3): 255-262.
83. Kovařík F, Fet V (2006). Taxonomic posi-tion of the genus Simonoides Vachon et Farzanpay, 1987, and description of a new species of Orthochirus Karsch from Iran (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Euscorpius, 38: 1–10.
84. Kovařík F (2004). Revision and taxonomic position of genera Afghanorthochirus Lourenço and Vachon, Baloorthochirus Kovařík, Butheolus Simon, Nanobuthus Pocock, Orthochiroides Kovařík, Paki-stanorthochirus Lourenço, and Asian Orthochirus Karsch, with descriptions of twelve new species (Scorpiones, Buthi-dae). Euscorpius, 16: 1-33.
85. Lourenço WR, Vachon M (1995). Un nou-veau genre et deux nouvelles espèces de scorpions Buthidae d'Iran. Bull Mus Natl Hist Nat Paris, 17: 297-305.
86. Teruel R, Kovařík F, Navidpour S et al (2014). The first record of the genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900 fro-mIran, with description of a new species (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Euscorpius, 2014: 1-10.
87. Fet V, Capes EM, Sissom WD (2001). A new genus and species of psammophilic scorpion from eastern Iran (Scorpiones: Buthidae). In: Scorpions 2001: In Memo-riam Gary A. Polis. Fet V, Selden PA ed. (British Arachnological Society: Burnham Beeches, Bucks, UK) ,183-189.
88. Monod L, Lourenço WR (2005). Hemiscor-piidae (Scorpiones) from Iran, with de-scriptions of two new species and notes on biogeography and phylogenetic rela-tionships. Rev Suisse Zool, 112: 869-941.
89. Akbari A (2007). Study of scorpion fauna of Iran. Project report publication of Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. 96.
90. Karataş A, Moradi Garkheloo M, Uçak M (2012). Contribution to the distribution of the scorpions of Iran: (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Zoology in the Middle East, 55(1):111-120.
91. Kovařík F, Navidpour S, Soleglad ME (2017). Hemiscorpius shahii sp. n. from Iran (Scorpiones: Hemiscorpiidae). Euscorpius, 249: 1-9.
92. Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH (2012). Scorpion sting: update. J Assoc Physicians India, 60:46-55.
93. Mohseni A, Vazirianzadeh V, Hossienzadeh M et al (2013). The Roles of Some Scorpions, Hemiscorpius lepturus and Androctonus crassicauda, in a Scorpionism Focus in Ramhormorz, Southwestern Iran. J Insect Sci, 13: 89.
94. Jalali A, Rahim F (2014). Epidemiological Review of Scorpion Envenomation in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res, 13(3): 743–756.
95. Shahi M, Rafinejad J, Az-Khosravi L et al (2015). First report of death due to Hemiscorpius acanthocercus enven-omation in Iran: Case report. Electron Phy-sician, 7(5): 1234–1238.
96. Radmanesh M (1998). Cutaneous manifesta-tions of the Hemiscorpius lepturus sting: a clinical study. Int J Dermatol, 37(7):500–507.
97. Dehghani R, Kamiabi F, Mohammadi M (2018). Scorpionism by Hemiscorpius spp. in Iran: a review. J Venom Anim Tox-ins Incl Trop Dis, 24:8.
98. Francke OF (1980). Revision of The genus Nebo Simon (Scorpi-ones.Diplocentridae). J Arachnol, 8:35-52.
99. Sanaei-Zadeh H, Marashi SM, Dehghani R (2017). Epidemiological and clinical char-acteristics of scorpionism in Shiraz (2012-2016); development of a clinical severity grading for Iranian scorpion enven-omation. Med J Islam Repub Iran, 17;31:27.
100. Jalali A, Pipelzadeh MH, Taraz M et al (2011). Serum TNF-α levels reflect the clinical severity of envenomation follow-ing a Hemiscorpius lepturus sting. Eur Cytokine Netw, 22:5-10.
101. Dehghani R, Khamehchian T, Vazirianza-deh B et al (2012). Toxic Effects of Scor-pion, Hemiscorpius Lepturus (Hemiscor-piidae) Venom on Mice. J Animal & Plant Sci, 22(3): 593-596.
102. Nazari M, Najafi A (2016). An Epidemio-logical Study on Scorpion Envenomation in Kazerun, Iran, 2009 2014. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 26(140):206-211.
103. Khosravani M, Mohebbi Nodez SM, Ra-fatpanah A et al (2018). The first study of snake and Scorpion envenomation in Qeshm Island, South of Iran. J Entomol Zool Stud, 6(2): 982-987.
104. Prendini L, Wheeler WC (2005). Scorpion higher phylogeny and classification, taxo-nomic anarchy, and standards for peer review in online publishing. Cladistics, 21(5): 446–494.
105. Dehghani R (2017). Solpugidophobia in Iran: Real or Illusion. J Biol Today's World, 6:46-48.
106. Mostafaii G, Dehghani R, Najafi M et al (2017). Frequency of urban pests and pesticides consumption in the residential houses of the east of Tehran City-Iran. J Entomol Res, 41(2): 125.
107. Dehghani R, Limoee M, Zarghi I (2012). The review of pesticide hazards with em-phasis on insecticide resistance in arthro-pods of health risk importance. J Kurdi-stan Univ Med Sci, 17(1):82-98.
Published
2019-12-02
How to Cite
1.
FIROOZFAR F, SAGHAFIPOUR A, JESRI N. Scorpions and Their Human Mortality Report in Iran: A Review Article. Iran J Public Health. 48(12):2140-2153.
Section
Review Article(s)