Prevalence of Trichinella spp. Infections in Hunted Wild Boars in Northern Iran
AbstractBackground: Trichinellosis is an important and neglected foodborne zoonotic infectious disease in worldwide. The most human outbreaks in recent years have been related to consumption of wild boar meat. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in hunted wild boars in northern Iran.Methods: Thirty-five hunted wild boars were subjected in this study in 2015. All samples were examined by conventional artiﬁcial digestion method to detect of muscle larvae. Genomic DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method from isolated larvae. To identify the Trichinella species, a PCR-based method was applied using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences.Results: The overall prevalence of Trichinella spp. infection was 5.7% (2/35, 95%CI= 0-13.4). The mean larval burdens in two positive samples were 0.05 and 6 larvae per gr tissue muscle, respectively. The PCR reaction, using speciﬁc primers, yielded two 367 bp and 195 bp bands on agarose gel for ITS 2 and rrnS, respectively. Conclusion: There is a hidden burden of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar population in Iran. Moreover, T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild boars of Iran. Therefore, education of the hunters and other consumers should be performed about the risk of consumption of raw or undercooked meat and meat products from wild boars.
Faber M, Schink S, Mayer-Scholl A, et al (2015). Outbreak of trichinellosis due to wild boar meat and evaluation of the effectiveness of post exposure prophylaxis, Germany, 2013. Clin Infect Dis, 60(12):98–104.
Devleesschauwer B, Praet N, Speybroeck N, et al (2015). The low global burden of trichinellosis: evidence and implications. Int J Parasitol, 45(2):95–9.
Murrell KD, Pozio E (2011). Worldwide occurrence and impact of human trichinellosis, 1986–2009. Emerg Infect Dis, 17(12):2194–202.
Pozio E (2007). World distribution of Trichinella spp. infections in animals and humans. Vet Parasitol, 149(1):3–21.
Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nöckler K (2009). Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev, 22(1):127–45.
Alonso M, Herrero B, Vieites JM, Espiñeira M (2011). Real-time PCR assay for detection of Trichinella in meat. Food Control, 22(8):1333–8.
De Bruyne A, Ancelle T, Vallee I, et al (2006). Human trichinellosis acquired from wild boar meat: a continuing parasitic risk in France. Euro Surveill, 11:E060914.
Fichi G, Stefanelli S, Pagani A, et al (2015). Trichinellosis outbreak caused by meat from a wild boar hunted in an Italian region considered to be at negligible risk for Trichinella. Zoonos Public Health, 62(4):285–91.
Holzbauer SM, Agger WA, Hall RL, et al (2014). Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa. Clin Infect Dis, 59(12):1750–6.
Padovani T, Rudroff JA, Hall R, et al (2014). Notes from the Field: Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Wild Boar Meat—Illinois, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 63(20):451.
Kia E, Meamar A, Zahabiun F, Mirhendi H (2009). The first occurrence of Trichinella murrelli in wild boar in Iran and a review of Iranian trichinellosis. J Helminthol, 83(4):399–402.
Moin M (1966). The ﬁrst report of trichinosis in human in Iran. Tehran Uni Med J, 5:259–67.
Rostami A, Ebrahimi M, Mehravar S, et al (2016). Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Int J Food Microbiol, 225:54–8.
Gamble H, Bessonov A, Cuperlovic K, et al (2000). International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption. Vet Parasitol, 93(3):393–408.
Sambrook J, Russell D (2001). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual . 2001. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Cuttell L, Corley SW, Gray CP, et al (2012). Real-time PCR as a surveillance tool for the detection of Trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife. Vet Parasitol, 188(3):285–93.
Mayer-Scholl A, Brogli A, Reckinger S, Nöckler K (2014). Polymerase chain reaction – Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the differentiation of Trichinella nativa and Trichinella britovi. Vet Parasitol, 2014; 203(1-2): 247–9.
Pozio E (2015). Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat. Vet Parasitol, 213(1):46–55.
Afshar A, Jahfarzadeh Z (1967). Trichinosis in Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasit, 61(3):349–51.
Mobedi I, Arfaa F, Madadi H, Movafagh K (1973). Sylvatic focus of trichiniasis in the Caspian region, Northern Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 22(6):720–2.
Borji H, Sadeghi H, Razmi G, et al (2012). Trichinella infection in wildlife of northeast of Iran. Iran J Parasitol, 7(4):57–61.
Bruschi F (2012). Trichinellosis in developing countries: is it neglected? J Infect Dev Ctrie, 6(3):216–22.
Mowlavi G, Marucci G, Mobedi I, et al (2009). Trichinella britovi in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran. Vet Parasitol, 164(2):350–2.
Mirjalali H, Rezaei S, Pozio E, et al (2014). Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran. J Helminthol, 88(04):385–8.
Marucci G, La Rosa G, Pozio E (2010). Incorrect sequencing and taxon misidentiﬁcation: an example in the Trichinella genus. J Helminthol, 84(3):336–9.
Shaikenov B, Boev S (1983). Distribution of Trichinella species in the Old World. Wiadomości Parazytol, 29(4/6):596–608.
Pozio E, Hoberg E, La Rosa G, Zarlenga DS (2009). Molecular taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus. Infect Genet Evol, 9(4):606–16.
Murrell K, Lichtenfels R, Zarlenga DS, Pozio E (2000). The systematics of the genus Trichinella with a key to species. Vet Parasitol, 93(3):293–307.