Iranian Journal of Public Health 2017. 46(5):677-681.

Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)


Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation.  Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients' lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects.

Methods: One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.

Results: Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases.

Conclusion: Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness.



SCI; Emotional intelligence; Injury level

Full Text:



Van den Berg M, Castellote J, Mahillo-Fernandez I, de Pedro-Cuesta J (2010). Incidence of spinal cord injury worldwide: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology, 34(3):184-192.

Hartkopp A, Brønnum-Hansen H, Seidenschnur AM, Biering-Sørensen F (1997). Survival and cause of death after traumatic spinal cord injury. A long-term epidemiological survey from Denmark. Spinal Cord, 35(2):76-85.

Hagen EM (2015). Acute complications of spinal cord injuries. World J Orthop, 6(1):17-23.

Ghajarzadeh M, Mohammadifar M (2013). Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Acta Med Iran, 51(3):185-188.

Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso DR (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychol Inq,15(3):197-215.

Ghajarzadeh M, Mahsa O, Sahraian MA, Moghadasi AN, Azimi A (2014). Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Iran J Public Health, 43(11):1550-1556.

Bar-On R (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, 28.

Samuei R (2003). Standardization of BarOn emotional intelligence test. Tehran: Sina Research Institution on behavioral sciences.

Ghassemzadeh H, Mojtabai R, Karamghadiri N, Ebrahimkhani N (2005). Psychometric properties of a Persian‐language version of the Beck Depression Inventory‐Second edition: BDI‐II‐PERSIAN. Depress Anxiety, 21(4):185-192.

Namdar H, Sahebihagh M, Ebrahimi H, Rahmani A (2009). Assessing emotional intelligence and its relationship with demographic factors of nursing students. IJNMR, 13(4):145-149.

Thuret S, Moon LD, Gage FH (2006). Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci, 7(8):628-643.

Burt AA (2004). (iii) The epidemiology, natural history and prognosis of spinal cord injury. Curr Orthop, 18(1):26-32.

Kennedy P, Rogers BA (2000). Anxiety and depression after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil,81(7):932-937.

Craig A, Tran Y, Middleton J (2009). Psychological morbidity and spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord, 47(2):108-14.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.