Iranian Journal of Public Health 2011. 40(4):1-30.

Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity
B Khoshpey, DD Farhud, F Zaini

Abstract


Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health espe­cially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding live­stock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expen­sive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects.


Keywords


Aflatoxicosis, Mycotoxins, Teratogenicity, Oxidative stress, Cytochrome P450, Congenital malformations, Iran,

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