Evaluation of Oral Health Status Based on the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index
Background: The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) is a valuable index used for determining and monitoring the oral health status in a community. This study aimed to determine the oral health status and its associated factors based on the DMFT index among people aged 15 to 45 yr old in Kurdistan Province, west of Iran.
Methods: This study was conducted on 2000 people aged 15-40 yr old in Kurdistan, western Iran in 2015. Using a questionnaire, data were collected by four trained dental students. The dependent variable was the DMFT index. The collected data were analyzed using T-test, ANOVA, Pearson statistics, Kendall statistics, and multiple regression.
Results: The mean (SD) values of Decayed teeth (DT), Missing teeth (MT), and Filled teeth (FT) indices in the participants were 2.85±1.7, 1.15±1.84, and 3.33±1.7, respectively. The mean (SD) value of total DMFT index was 7.33±3.0. The results of multiple regression showed that the frequency of using dental floss (coefficient= -0.296, P=0.001), socio-economic status (coefficient=-0.199, P=0.001), parental education (coefficient= -0.183, P=0.001), frequency of brushing (coefficient=-0.182, P=0.001), and frequency of the use of mouthwash (coefficient=-0/143, P=0.001) had the highest level of with association with the DMFT index.
Conclusion: The oral health status of the adult population is alarming and undesirable. The oral and dental health status can be improved via changing behavioral habits (such as brushing, using mouthwashes, and dental floss), promoting socioeconomic status, increasing individual’s and parent's level of education, and enhancing people’s access to health insurance.
2. Acharya S, Sangam DK (2008). Oral health‐related quality of life and its relationship with health locus of control among Indi-an dental university students. Eur J Dent Educ, 12(4):208-12.
3. Nanayakkara V, Renzaho A, Oldenburg B, Ekanayake L (2013). Ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health out-comes and quality of life among Sri Lankan preschoolers: a cross-sectional study. Int J Equity Health, 12:89.
4. Cantekin K, Yildirim MD, Cantekin I (2014). Assessing change in quality of life and dental anxiety in young children following dental rehabilitation under general anes-thesia. Pediatr Dent, 36(1):12E-17E.
5. Jin LJ, Lamster IB, Greenspan JS et al (2016). Global burden of oral diseases: Emerging concepts, management and in-terplay with systemic health. Oral Dis, 22(7):609–619.
6. Petersen PE (2003). The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century–the ap-proach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemi-ol, 31 Suppl 1:3-23.
7. Krustrup U, Petersen PE (2012). Dental car-ies prevalence among adults in Denmark--the impact of socio-demographic factors and use of oral health services. Community Dent Health, 24(4):225-32.
8. World Health Organization. Oral health. [Accessed 14 Jan 2016, at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/oral-health].
9. Broadbent JM, Thomson WM (2005). For debate: Problems with the dmf index pertinent to dental caries data analysis. Community Den Oral Epidemiol, 33(6):400-9.
10. Roland E, Gueguen G, Longis MJ, Boiselle J (1994). Validation of the reproducibility of the dmf index used in bucco-dental epidemiology and evaluation of its 2 clini-cal forms. World Health Stat Q, 47(2): 44-61.
11. Marthaler TM (2004). Changes in dental car-ies 1953-2003. Caries Res, 38(3): 173-81.
12. Nadanovsky P, Sheiham A (1995). Relative contribution of dental services to the changes in caries levels of 12-year-old children in 18 industrialized countries in the 1970s and early 1980s. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 23(6):331-9.
13. Kim SR, Han SJ (2015). The relationship be-tween perceived oral health status and en-trance exam stress levels in high school students. J Dent Hyg Sci, 15(4):509-17.
14. Bozdemir E, Yilmaz HH, Orhan H (2016). General Health and oral health status in elderly dental patients in Isparta, Turkey. East Mediterr Health J, 22(8):579-585.
15. Bridges SM, Parthasarathy DS, Wong HM et al (2014). The relationship between care-giver functional oral health literacy and child oral health status. Patient Educ Couns, 94(3):411-6.
16. Mittal M, Chaudhary P, Chopra R, Khattar V (2014). Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years old school going children in rural Gurgaon, India: an epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 32(1):3-8.
17. Bernabé E, Sheiham A (2014). Extent of dif-ferences in dental caries in permanent teeth between childhood and adulthood in 26 countries. Int Dent J, 64(5):241-5.
18. Namal N, Can G, Vehid S et al (2008). Den-tal health status and risk factors for den-tal caries in adults in Istanbul, Turkey. East Mediterr Health J, 14 (1): 110-8.
19. Moradi G, Moinafshar A, Adabi H et al (2017). Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Oral Health of People Aged 15-40 Years in Kurdistan, Iran in 2015: A Cross-sectional Study. J Prev Med Public Health, 50(5):303-310.
20. Damyanov ND, Witter DJ, Bronkhorst EM, Creugers NH (2012). Dental status and associated factors in a dentate adult population in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Dent, 2012: 578401.
21. Mendes DC, de Oliveira Poswar F, de Oliveira MV et al (2012). Analysis of so-cio‐demographic and systemic health fac-tors and the normative conditions of oral health care in a population of the Brazili-an elderly. Gerodontology, 29(2): e206-14.
22. Zini A, Sgan-Cohen HD, Marcenes W (2012). The social and behavioural path-way of dental caries experience among Jewish adults in Jerusalem. Caries Res, 46(1):47-54.
23. Lu HX, Wong MC, Lo EC, McGrath C (2013). Risk indicators of oral health sta-tus among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression. BMC Oral Health, 13:40.
24. Álvarez L, Liberman J, Abreu S et al (2015). Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and el-ders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Cad Saude Publica, 31(8):1663-72.
25. Tonello Benazzi AS, Pereira da Silva R, de Castro Meneghim M et al (2012). Dental caries and fluorosis prevalence and their relationship with socioeconomic and be-havioural variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren. Oral Health Prev Dent,10(1): 65-73.
26. Pakpour AH, Hidarnia A, Hajizadeh E et al (2011). The status of dental caries and re-lated factors in a sample of Iranian ado-lescents. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 16(6):e822-7.
27. Pakshir HR (2004). Oral health in Iran. Int Dent J, 54(6 Suppl 1):367-72.
28. Hessari H, Vehkalahti MM, Eghbal MJ, Murtomaa HT (2007). Oral health among 35-to 44-year-old Iranians. Med Princ Pract, 16(4):280-5.
29. O’donnell O, Van Doorslaer E, Wagstaff A, Lindelow M (2008). Analyzing health eq-uity using household survey data. Wash-ington, DC: World Bank: 150.
30. World Health Organization (2013). Oral health surveys: basic methods. World Health Organization; 74.
31. Ministry of Health and Medical Education. [Accessed 14 Jan 2016, at http://oralhealth.behdasht.gov.ir/file/OralHealth%20Pannel-57th.EXIDA.pdf]
32. Hernandez-Palacios RD, Ramirez-Amador V, Jarillo-Soto EC et al (2015). Relation-ship between gender, income and educa-tion and self-perceived oral health among elderly Mexicans: An exploratory study. Cien Saude Colet, 20(4):997-1004.
33. Ditmyer M, Dounis G, Mobley C, Schwarz E (2011). Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (Sic) over time. BMC Oral Health, 11:12.
34. Rad EH, Kavosi Z, Arefnezhad M (2016). Economic inequalities in dental care utili-zations in Iran: Evidence from an urban region. Med J Islam Repub Iran, 30:383.
35. Ghorbani Z, Ahmady AE, Ghasemi E, Zwi AB (2015). Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among adults in Tehran, Iran. Community Dent Health, 32(1):26-31.
36. Eslamipour F, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Asgari I (2010). The relationship between aging and oral health inequalities assessed by the DMFT index. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 11(4):193-9.
37. Melo P, Marques S, Silva OM (2017). Portu-guese self‐reported oral‐hygiene habits and oral status. Int Dent J, 67(3):139-47.
38. Kwon MH, Choi HS (2016). Association of Gender, Education, Income and Self-Perceived Oral Health Status among the Koreans; the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Indian J Sci Technol, 9(41): DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i41/103895.
39. Beiser M, Hou F, Hyman I, Tousignant M (2002). Poverty, family process, and the mental health of immigrant children in Canada. Am J Public Health, 92(2):220-7.
40. Chattopadhyay A, Kumar JV, Green EL (2003). The New York State minority health survey: determinants of oral health care utilization. J Public Health Dent, 63(3):158-65.