Income Inequality by Gini-Coefficient on Suicide Death in Iran: A Review of National Data
Background: Research in source of inequality and enhance of knowledge can be reducing the inequalities in the coming decades. Therefore, we aimed to ascertain effects of income inequality measured by Gini-coefficient to death from suicide in Iran.
Methods: This is an ecological study on the relation of Gini-coefficient and suicide death in Iran. Data were obtained from Iranian Urban and Rural Household Income for Gini-coefficient and Expenditure Survey and Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization for suicide. Concentration Index was used to determine of inequality by Gini-coefficient in suicide death and prediction model was applied by Stata software. Significant level considered less than 5%.
Results: A Gini-coefficient between 0.2523 and 0.3755 (mean, 0.3092) was observed. The overall concentration index CI was -0.10 (95% CI= -0.19 to -0.01), therefore our results confirmed a positive inequality in incidence suicide rate result from income inequality in Iran.
Conclusion: Our results showed a positive inequality due to Gini-coefficients in suicide death. This study could be a start for investigation of inequality source in geographical units and at the individual level in all provinces.
2. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (2015). Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 385:117-171.
3. Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN (2015). Impact of Income Inequality and Other Social Determinants on Suicide Rate in Brazil. PLoS One, 10:e0124934.
4. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Mohamadian F, Valizadeh R (2018). Trends of Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicide in Ilam Province of Iran; A Demographic Analysis Study. Bull Emerg Trauma, 6: 245–248.
5. Afghah S, Aghahasani M, Noori-Khajavi M, Tavakoli E (2014). Survey of Suicide Attempts in Sari. Iran J Psychiatry, 9:89-95.
6. Kiadaliri AA, Saadat S, Shahnavazi H et al (2014). Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study. BMJ Open, 4:e005227.
7. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Moradi G et al (2017). Inequality in Addiction and Mental Disorders in 6818 Suicide Attempts: Determine of Positive Contribution of Determinants by Decomposition Method. Iran J Public Health, 46:796-803.
8. Poorolajal J, Rostami M, Mahjub H et al (2015). Completed suicide and associated risk factors: A six-year population based survey. Arch Iran Med, 18: 39-43.
9. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K et al (2017). Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality Determinants in Suicide Deaths in Iran: A Concentration Index Approach. Korean J Fam Med, 38:135-140.
10. Yoder KA, Hoyt DR (2005). Family economic pressure and adolescent suicidal ideation: application of the family stress model. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 35:251-64.
11. Burrows S, Laflamme L (2010). Socioeconomic disparities and attempted suicide: state of knowledge and implications for research and prevention. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 17:23-40.
12. Abuabara A, Abuabara A, Tonchuk CAL (2017). Comparative analysis of death by suicide in Brazil and in the United States: descriptive, cross-sectional time series study. Sao Paulo Med J, 135:150-156.
13. Kazemi-Galougahi MH, Mansouri A, Akbarpour S et al (2018). Income-related inequality in completed suicide across the provinces of Iran. Epidemiol Health, 40: e2018012.
14. Shojaei A, Shamsiani H, Moradi S et al (2012). The Study of Successful Cases of Suicide Commitment Referred to Iran Legal Medicine Organization in 2010. Ir J Forensic Med, 18:7-15.
15. Hsu C-Y, Chang S-S, Lee EST, Yip PSF (2015). Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: Spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities. Soc Sci Med, 130:190-203.
16. Rezaeian M (2007). Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000. East Mediterr Health J, 13:953-60.
17. Stack S (2000). Suicide: A 15-Year Review of the Sociological Literature Part I: Cultural and Economic Factors. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 30:145-162.
18. Rehkopf DH, Buka SL (2006). The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas: a systematic review. Psychol Med, 36:145-57.