Income Inequality by Gini-Coefficient on Suicide Death in Iran: A Review of National Data

  • Yousef VEISANI Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
  • Ali DELPISHEH Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
  • Reza VALIZADEH Department of Psychology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
  • Sattar KIKHAVANI Department of Psychology, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
Keywords: Gini-coefficients, Inequality, Concentration index, Suicide

Abstract

Background: Research in source of inequality and enhance of knowledge can be reducing the inequalities in the coming decades. Therefore, we aimed to ascertain effects of income inequality measured by Gini-coefficient to death from suicide in Iran.

Methods: This is an ecological study on the relation of Gini-coefficient and suicide death in Iran. Data were obtained from Iranian Urban and Rural Household Income for Gini-coefficient and Expenditure Survey and Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization for suicide. Concentration Index was used to determine of inequality by Gini-coefficient in suicide death and prediction model was applied by Stata software. Significant level considered less than 5%.

Results: A Gini-coefficient between 0.2523 and 0.3755 (mean, 0.3092) was observed. The overall concentration index CI was -0.10 (95% CI= -0.19 to -0.01), therefore our results confirmed a positive inequality in incidence suicide rate result from income inequality in Iran.

Conclusion: Our results showed a positive inequality due to Gini-coefficients in suicide death. This study could be a start for investigation of inequality source in geographical units and at the individual level in all provinces.

 

 

 

References

1. Bertolote JM, Fleischmann A (2005). Suicidal behavior prevention: WHO perspectives on research. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 133C:8-12.
2. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (2015). Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 385:117-171.
3. Machado DB, Rasella D, dos Santos DN (2015). Impact of Income Inequality and Other Social Determinants on Suicide Rate in Brazil. PLoS One, 10:e0124934.
4. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Mohamadian F, Valizadeh R (2018). Trends of Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicide in Ilam Province of Iran; A Demographic Analysis Study. Bull Emerg Trauma, 6: 245–248.
5. Afghah S, Aghahasani M, Noori-Khajavi M, Tavakoli E (2014). Survey of Suicide Attempts in Sari. Iran J Psychiatry, 9:89-95.
6. Kiadaliri AA, Saadat S, Shahnavazi H et al (2014). Overall, gender and social inequalities in suicide mortality in Iran, 2006–2010: a time trend province-level study. BMJ Open, 4:e005227.
7. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Moradi G et al (2017). Inequality in Addiction and Mental Disorders in 6818 Suicide Attempts: Determine of Positive Contribution of Determinants by Decomposition Method. Iran J Public Health, 46:796-803.
8. Poorolajal J, Rostami M, Mahjub H et al (2015). Completed suicide and associated risk factors: A six-year population based survey. Arch Iran Med, 18: 39-43.
9. Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K et al (2017). Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality Determinants in Suicide Deaths in Iran: A Concentration Index Approach. Korean J Fam Med, 38:135-140.
10. Yoder KA, Hoyt DR (2005). Family economic pressure and adolescent suicidal ideation: application of the family stress model. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 35:251-64.
11. Burrows S, Laflamme L (2010). Socioeconomic disparities and attempted suicide: state of knowledge and implications for research and prevention. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 17:23-40.
12. Abuabara A, Abuabara A, Tonchuk CAL (2017). Comparative analysis of death by suicide in Brazil and in the United States: descriptive, cross-sectional time series study. Sao Paulo Med J, 135:150-156.
13. Kazemi-Galougahi MH, Mansouri A, Akbarpour S et al (2018). Income-related inequality in completed suicide across the provinces of Iran. Epidemiol Health, 40: e2018012.
14. Shojaei A, Shamsiani H, Moradi S et al (2012). The Study of Successful Cases of Suicide Commitment Referred to Iran Legal Medicine Organization in 2010. Ir J Forensic Med, 18:7-15.
15. Hsu C-Y, Chang S-S, Lee EST, Yip PSF (2015). Geography of suicide in Hong Kong: Spatial patterning, and socioeconomic correlates and inequalities. Soc Sci Med, 130:190-203.
16. Rezaeian M (2007). Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000. East Mediterr Health J, 13:953-60.
17. Stack S (2000). Suicide: A 15-Year Review of the Sociological Literature Part I: Cultural and Economic Factors. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 30:145-162.
18. Rehkopf DH, Buka SL (2006). The association between suicide and the socio-economic characteristics of geographical areas: a systematic review. Psychol Med, 36:145-57.
Published
2019-07-18
How to Cite
1.
VEISANI Y, DELPISHEH A, VALIZADEH R, KIKHAVANI S. Income Inequality by Gini-Coefficient on Suicide Death in Iran: A Review of National Data. Iran J Public Health. 48(8):1512-1517.
Section
Short Communication(s)