Epidemiology of Suicide/Suicide attempt and its Association with Individual, Family, and Social Factors in Eastern Part of Iran: A Historical Cohort Study
Background: Suicide/suicide attempt, as a major public health problem, has been included among anti-social behaviors. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of suicide and some associated individual, family, and social factors.
Methods: A historical cohort study was conducted among all cases (748 persons) reports related to suicide/suicide attempt that register in hospital reporting system and health care center in Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. The required data were extracted through a checklist. Descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and analytic statistics (t-test, Chi-square, and logistic regression) applied to analyzed data. All data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Of the 748 reported suicide attempters, 17 cases (2.3%) had completed suicide. The annual average incidence rate of suicide was 110.03 per 100,000 populations. The mean age of suicide attempt had significantly decreased during the time (P=0.007). Furthermore, a significant association was observed between outcome of suicide and place of residence (P=0.019), history of physical illnesses (P=0.002), and method of suicide (P=0.001).
Conclusion: Due to trend of age among suicide attempters, considering intervention programs of suicide prevention for school pupils and university students especially individuals residing in rural areas, as well as individuals suffering from physical illness would be effective to reduce the rate of suicide.
2. Bursztein Lipsicas C, Mäkinen IH, Apter A et al (2012). Attempted suicide among immigrants in European countries: an international perspective. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 47:241-251.
3. Ghoreishi SA, Mousavinasab N (2008). Systematic review of researches on suicide and suicide attempt in Iran. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol, 14:115-121.
4. Artenie AA, Bruneau J, Zang G et al (2015). Associations of substance use patterns with attempted suicide among persons who inject drugs: Can distinct use patterns play a role? Drug Alcohol Depend, 147:208-214.
5. Lyon DE, Chase LS, Farrell SP (2002). Using an interview guide to assess suicidal identification. Nurse Pract, 27(8):26-9.
6. Troister T, Links PS, Cutcliffe J (2008). Review of predictors of suicide within 1 year of discharge from a psychiatric hospital. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 10:60-65.
7. Shakeri A, Jafarizadeh F (2013). The reasons for successful suicides in Fars province. Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 22:271-275.
8. Fountoulakis KN, Savopoulos C, Apostolopoulou M et al (2015). Rate of suicide and suicide attempts and their relationship to unemployment in Thessaloniki Greece (2000–2012). J Affect Disord, 174:131-136.
9. Hodo DW (2006). Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry, 163:1458-1458.
10. Suokas JT, Perälä J, Suominen K et al (2010). Epidemiology of suicide attempts among persons with psychotic disorder in the general population. Schizophr Res, 124:22-28.
11. Gorgi Z, Sheikh Fathollahi M, Askarizadeh M, Rezaeian M (2014). Epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in the Larestan and Gerash during 2008 to 2012. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci, 13:597-608.
12. Rafiei M, Seyfi A (2009). The epidemiologic study of suicide attempt referred to hospitals of University of Medical Sciences in Markazi-Province from 2002 to 2006. Iran J Epidemiol, 4:59-69.
13. Moradi AR, Moradi R, Mostafavi E (2010). A survey of the rate and effective factors on suicide in Bahar. J Res Behav Sci, 10(1):50-58.
14. Reith DM, Whyte I, Carter G et al (2004). Risk factors for suicide and other deaths following hospital treated self‐poisoning in Australia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 38:520-525.
15. Robinson J, Cotton S, Conus P et al (2009). Prevalence and predictors of suicide attempt in an incidence cohort of 661 young people with first-episode psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 43:149-157.
16. Dervic K, Amiri L, Niederkrotenthaler T et al (2012). Suicide rates in the national and expatriate population in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Int J Soc Psychiatry, 58:652-6.
17. Piraee E, Shahkolahi Z, Salehiniya H (2014). Epidemiological Study of Suicide and Attempted Suicide and Related Factors in Kohgiluyeh, Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch, 32:1706-1717.
18. Wei S, Yan H, Chen W et al (2013). Gender-specific differences among patients treated for suicide attempts in the emergency departments of four general hospitals in Shenyang, China. Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 35:54-58.
19. Lahti A, Harju A, Hakko H et al (2014). Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland. J Psychiatr Res, 58:123-128.
20. Saberi-Zafarghandi M, Ghorbani R, Mousavi S (2005). Epidemiologic study on suicide attempt in affiliated hospitals of Semnan University of medical sciences. Koomesh, 6:311-318.
21. Lyu J, Zhang J (2014). Characteristics of schizophrenia suicides compared with suicides by other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and those without a psychiatric disorder. Schizophr Res, 155:59-65.
22. Jia C-X, Zhang J (2017). Confucian values, negative life events, and rural young suicide with major depression in China. Omega (Westport), 76:3-14.
23. Qari A, Yazdekhasti FF, Masudi S (2014). The epidemiology of suicide and related factors in the city of Lordegan from 2001 to 2011. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci, 15:75-86.
24. Marquet RL, Bartelds AI, Kerkhof AJ et al (2005). The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983–2003. BMC Fam Pract, 6:45.
25. Ghaleiha A, Fard FB (2007). Epidemiologic survey of suicide attempters hospitalized in Hamadan Sina Hospital in 2001-2002. Sci J Hamdan Univ Med Sci, 13:58-63.
26. Hossini S, Toroski M, Asadi R et al (2013). Trend of attempted suicide and its related factors in Bojnurd city 2006-2011. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci, 4:543-51.
27. Burgess P, Pirkis J, Jolley D et al (2004). Do nations’ mental health policies, programs and legislation influence their suicide rates? An ecological study of 100 countries. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 38:933-939.
28. Rezaeian M, Sharifirad GR, Foroutani MR, Moazam N (2010). Recognition of some of the risk factors for suicide and attempted suicide within Ilam province and their direction of function. J Health Syst Res,6(1):86-94.
29. Selaman ZM, Chartrand HK, Bolton JM, Sareen J (2014). Which symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with suicide attempts? J Anxiety Disord, 28:246-251.
30. Ngui AN, Vasiliadis H-M, Préville M (2015). Individual and area-level factors correlated with death by suicide in older adults. Prev Med, 75:44-48.
31. Zarenezhad M, Gorgi Z, Sheikh Fathollahi M et al (2015). Epidemiological Survey of Suicide in Fars Province in the south of Iran during 2003 to 2011. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci, 13:1129-1140.