Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Cord Blood Samples from Neonates in Tehran, Iran

  • Moloud NAHVI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Saeedeh SHOJAEE Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hossein KESHAVARZ Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mahboobeh SALIMI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi MOHEBALI Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, ELISA, Cord blood, IgG antibody, IgM antibody

Abstract

Background: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the coccidian protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is life-threatening in congenital form because of transmission of the parasite from mother to fetus. In order to investigate the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis, the present study was performed for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in cord blood samples of newborns by ELISA method in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1000 cord blood samples collected from Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Sera were separated and evaluated for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by ELISA method. At the same time, whole cord blood samples were stored at -20 °C for complementary PCR test. Results: From 1000 cord blood serum samples 198 cases (19.8%) were positive for anti T. gondii IgG antibody. IgG positive samples were examined for IgM antibody, among them 1 sample had borderline levels of IgM antibody. PCR was performed for this sample but no positive result was seen. Conclusion: Although congenital toxoplasmosis is of importance, no acute form of infection was seen in pregnant women in this study.    

References

1. Kloos H, Berhane Y (2006). Zoonotic diseases of public health importance. In: Berhane Y, Hai-lemarian D, Kloos H, editors. Epidemiology and ecology of health and diseases in Ethiopia. 1st edition. Addis Ab-aba. Shama Books. p. 692-700.
2. Hill DE, Chirukandoth S, Dubey JP (2005). Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals. Anim Health Res Rev, 6: 41-61.
3. Fayer R, Dubey JP, Lindsay DS (2004). Zoonotic protozoa: from land to sea. Trends Parasitol, 20:531-536.
4. Tavalla M, Oormazdi H, Akhlaghi L, et al (2013). Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from soil samples in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Parasitol, 8:227-233.
5. Montoya IG, Liesenfeld O (2004). Toxoplasmosis. Lancet, 363: 1965-1976.
6. Jarque I, Salavert M, Peman J (2016). Parasitic infec-tions in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis, 8 (1): e2016035.
7. 7 Dubey JP (2010).Toxoplasmosis of animals and humans. 2nd edition, CRC Press.
8. Speer CA, Dubey JP (2005). Ultrastructural differentia-tion of Toxoplasma gondii schizonts (types B to E) and gamonts in the intestines of cats fed bradyzo-ites. Int J Parasitol, 35:193-206.
9. Reis MM, Tessaro MM, D'azevedo PA (2006). Per-filsorol gico para toxoplasmose em gestantes deum hospital p blico de Porto Alegre. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet, 28:158-64.
10. Mostafavi SN, Jalali Monfared L (2012). Toxoplas-mosis epidemiology in Iran: A Systematic review. J Isfahan Med School, 30:1-15.
11. Ali-Heydari S, Keshavarz H, Shojaee S,Mohebali M (2013). Diagnosis of antigenic markers of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity immunoblotting. Parasite, 20, 18: 1- 4.
12. Bradford MM (1976). Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye bind-ing. Anal Biochem, 72: 248-254.
13. Rahbari AH, Keshavarz H, Shojaee S, Mohebali M, Rezaeian M (2012). IgG avidity ELISA test for di-agnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Korean J Parasitol, 50, 2: 99-102.
14. Rostami A, Keshavarz H, Shojaee S, Mohebali M, Meamar AR (2014). Frequency of Toxoplasma in HIV positive patients from west of Iran by ELI-SA and PCR. Iran J Parasitol, 4: 474- 481.
15. Lebech M, Larson SO, Peterson E (1993). Preva-lence and geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii antibody in pregnant women in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis, 25: 751-756.
16. Mandell G, Douglas R, Bennett JE, Dolin R (2005). Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of In-fectious Diseases. 5th edition, UK, Churchill Living-stone.
17. Mohammadi A, Shojaee S, Salimi M, et al (2015). Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in women referred to Arak marriage consulting cen-ter during 2012–2013. Iran J Public Health, 44: 654-658.
18. Abdi J, Shojaee S, Mirzaee A, Keshavarz H (2008). Se-roprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Illam province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol, 3:34-37.
19. Sharbatkhori M, Dadi- Moghaddam Y, Pagheh AS, et al (2014). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in-fections in pregnant women in Gorgan city, Go-lestan province, northern Iran-2012. Iran J Parasitol, 9: 181-7.
20. Mozzatto L, Procianoy RS (2003). Incidence of con-genital toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil: a pro-spective study. Rev Inst Med Trop S Paulo, 45: 147-151.
21. Al-haris FM, Saheb HS, Abdul-Sada KM (2015). In-vestigation of toxoplasmosis in cord blood of newborns at Al-Najaf province, Iraq by searching for IgG and IgM antibodies. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci, 4: 314-321.
22. Lappalainen M, Koskiniemi M, Hiilesmaa V, et al (1995). Outcome of children after maternal prima-ry Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy with emphasis on avidity of specific IgG. The Study Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 14: 354-361.
23. Valcavi PP, Natalia A, Soliani, L. et al (1995). Preva-lence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the population of the area of Parma (Italy). Eur J Epi-demiol, 11: 333-337.
24. Walpole IR, Hodgen N, Bower C (1991). Congenital toxoplasmosis: a large survey in Western Australia. Med J Aust, 154: 720-724.
Published
2019-05-15
How to Cite
1.
NAHVI M, SHOJAEE S, KESHAVARZ H, SALIMI M, MOHEBALI M. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Cord Blood Samples from Neonates in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Public Health. 48(5):912-916.
Section
Original Article(s)