Computer Game Addiction and Loneliness in Children

  • Hülya KÖK EREN Dept. of Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey
  • Özlem ÖRSAL Dept. of Public Health Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey
Keywords: Dependency, Loneliness, Child


Abstract Background: We aimed to determine the level of computer game addiction and loneliness among 9-10-yr-old children. Methods: The study was conducted with 4th-grade students at a primary school, located at the city center, during 2017-2018 academic years. There was no sampling in the research, all 4th-grade students of the school were reached. “Personal Information Form”, “Computer Game Addiction Scale” and “UCLA Loneliness Scale” were used for collecting data. Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test, and Correlation Analysis were used to evaluate the data of the research. Results: 50.7% (n=104) of the students were female, most frequent number of sister/brother was one 39.0% (n=80), both their mother 31.7% (n=65) and their father 34.1% (n=69) were mostly high school graduated. The average scores that students got from the scales were; 48.66±.27.02 (min.: 21.00, max.: 105) for “Computer Game Addiction Scale” and 40.55±8.50 (min: 22.00, max.: 64) for “UCLA Loneliness Scale”. A weak, positive and significant relationship was found between students’ loneliness scale scores and computer game addiction scale scores (r=0.357; P<0.000). Conclusion: A significant relationship was found between students’ computer game addiction and loneliness. It is suggested to perform children’s loneliness and computer game addiction assessments, evaluate effectiveness and establish a rehabilitating treatment system among school-hospital-family for abnormal cases.  


1. Yalçın- Irmak A, Erdoğan S (2016). Ergen ve Genç Erişkinlerde Dijital Oyun Bağımlılığı: Güncel Bir Bakış. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 27(2):128-137.
2. Ustinavičienė R, Škėmienė L, Lukšienė D et al (2016). Problematic computer game use as expression of Internet addiction and its association with self-rated health in the Lithuanian adolescent population. Medicina (Kaunas), 52(3):199-204.
3. James R, Tunney R (2017). The relationship between gaming disorder and addiction requires a behavioral analysis. Commentary on: Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal. J Behav Addict, 6:306-309.
4. Association AP (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). ed. American Psychiatric Pub.
5. Durak HY (2018). Modeling of variables related to problematic internet usage and problematic social media usage in adolescents. Curr Psychol,
6. Durak EŞ, Durak M (2017). Cognitions about problematic internet use: The importance of negative cognitive stress appraisals and maladaptive coping strategies. Curr Psychol, 36:350-357.
7. Toker S, Baturay M (2016). Antecedents and consequences of game addiction. Comput Human Behav, 55:668-679.
8. Holman JP, Hansen CE, Cochian ME, Lindsey CR (2005). Liar, liar: Internet faking but not freguency of use affect social skills, self-esteem, social anxiety, and aggression. Cyberpsychol Behav, 8(1):1-6.
9. Colwell J, Payne J (2000). Negative correlates of computer game I. Tarı Cömert ve ark., Çocuk ve Ergenlerde İnternet Kullanımı 169 play in adolescents. Br J Psychol, 91:295-310.
10. Anderson CA, Bushman BJ (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour, agressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousel, and prosocial behaviour: A metaanalysis of the scientific literature. Psychol Sci, 12(5):353-9.
11. Peplau LA, Perlman D, Peplau LA, Perlman D (1982). Perspectives on loneliness. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy:1-20.
12. Guo Y, You X, Gu Y, Wu G, Xu C (2018). A moderated mediation model of the relationship between quality of social relationships and internet addiction: mediation by loneliness and moderation by dispositional optimism. Curr Psychol.
13. Muslu K, Bolışık B (2009). Çocuk ve Gençlerde İnternet Kullanımı. TAF Prev Med Bul, 8:445-450.
14. Horzum MB, Tuncay A, Balta Ö (2008). Computer Game Addiction Scale For Children. Journal of Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance, 3:76-88.
15. Russell D, Peplau L, Cutrona C (1980). The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. J Pers Soc Psychol, 39(3):472-80.
16. Demir A (1989). Demir, A. (1989). Validity and reliability of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. J Psychol, 7(23):14-18.
17. Frölich J, Lehmkuhl G, Orawa H, Bromba M, Wolf K, Görtz-Dorten A (2016). Computer game misuse and addiction of adolescents in a clinically referred study sample. Comput Human Behav, 55:9-15.
18. Dalbudak E, Evren C, Aldemir S et al (2013). Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 16:272-278.
19. Hyun G, Han D, Lee Y et al (2015). Risk factors associated with online game addiction: a hierarchical model. Comput Human Behav, 48:706-713.
20. Foti K, Eaton D, Lowry R, McKnight-Ely L (2011). Sufficient sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Am J Prev Med, 41:596-602.
21. Zhang M, Tran B, Hinh N et al (2017). Internet addiction and sleep quality among Vietnamese youths. Asian J Psychiatr, 28:15-20.
22. Chen Y, Gau S (2016). Sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents: a longitudinal study. J Sleep Res, 25:458-465.
23. Sung J, Lee J, Noh H, Park Y, Ahn E (2013). Associations between the risk of internet addiction and problem behaviors among Korean adolescents. Korean J Fam Med, 34:115-122.
24. Caplan SE (2002). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive–behavioral measurement instrument. Comput Human Behav, 18:553-575.
25. Wack E, Tantleff-Dunn S (2009). Relationships between electronic game play, obesity, and psychosocial functioning in young men. Cyberpsychol Behav, 12:241-244.
26. Kowert R, Vogelgesang J, Festl R, Quandt T (2015). Psychosocial causes and consequences of online video game play. Comput Human Behav, 45:51-58.
27. Holdoš J (2017). Type D personality in the prediction of internet addiction in the young adult population of Slovak Internet users. Curr Psychol, 36:861-868.
28. Lemmens J, Valkenburg PM, Peter J (2011). Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming. Comput Human Behav, 27:144-152.
29. Peeters M, Koning I, Eijnden R (2018). Predicting Internet Gaming Disorder symptoms in young adolescents: A one-year follow-up study. Comput Human Behav, 80:255-261.
How to Cite
KÖK EREN H, ÖRSAL Özlem. Computer Game Addiction and Loneliness in Children. IJPH. 47(10):1504-10.
Original Article(s)