The Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Elementary School Children Living in Endemic Areas: A Baseline Survey Prior to Mass Drug Administration in Pekalongan District-Indonesia

  • Praba GINANDJAR Dept. of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia 2. Doctoral Program of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Lintang Dian SARASWATI Dept. of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Dedy SUPARYANTO Master Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2-District Health Office, Pekalongan District, Central Java, Indonesia
  • Mateus SAKUNDARNO Dept. of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia 2. Master Program of Epidemiology, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Taniawati SUPALI Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Mass treatment, Wuchereria bancrofti, Elimination, Filariasis, Children

Abstract

Abstract Background: WHO initiated lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination globally. Pekalongan District, as LF endemic area, started a program of mass drug administration (MDA) to combat LF in 2015. This study aimed to determine prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection prior to the MDA. Methods: LF infection was detected by the existence of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) W. bancrofti using immunochromatographic card test (ICT). The study population consisted of 1404 elementary school (ES) students living in Pekalongan District. Overall, 1033 were selected as study subjects. Prevalence survey was also conducted on 436 general population in areas where infected students were found. Results: The subjects ranged from 7-17 yr old (mean 9.85±1.296) and equally distributed between both sexes. Prevalence of W. bancrofti infection was 1.98% in children. Infection was mostly found in older students (12 yr old), male, in 6th grade, but did not differ significantly (P=0.129, 0.376, and 0.212 respectively). On the other hand, distribution of infection was significantly different by school (P=0.009) and sub-district (P=0000). Most of children with LF infection were found in Tirto Sub District. In general population, the prevalence of W. bancrofti infection in Tirto was 4.4%. Proportion of infection in males (12.2%) was greater than females (3.8%), with 78.9% of positive cases were in adult over 20 yr old. Conclusion: Cases of W. bancrofti infection exist in Pekalongan District, both in children and adults. Implementation of MDA must be carefully monitored in order to achieve elimination target.  

References

1. Nutman T (2001). Blood-borne filarial infection: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In: Gillespie SH, Pearson RD, editors. Principles and Practise of Clinical Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 433–54.
2. Supali T, Kurniawan A, Partono F (2011). Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori. In: Sutanto I, Ismid IS, Sjarifuddin PK, Sungkar S, editors. Parasitologi Kedokteran. 4th ed. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI. p. 32–40.
3. Zeldenryk LM, Gray M, Speare R, Gordon S, Melrose W (2011). The emerging story of disability associated with lymphatic filariasis: a critical review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 5 (12): e1366.
4. Brandão E, Bonfim C, Cabral D et al (2011). Mapping of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in children and adolescents in an endemic area of Brazil. Acta Trop, 120 (1-2): 151-4.
5. Chu BK, Hooper PJ, Bradley MH, McFarland DA, Ottesen EA (2010). The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007). PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 4 (6): e708.
6. World Health Organization (2015). Lymphatic filariasis: Key facts. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Media Centre. p. 1.
7. Holmes P (2014). Neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 health agenda. Lancet, 383 (9931): 1803.
8. Perera M, Whitehead M, Molyneux D et al (2007). Neglected patients with a neglected disease? A qualitative study of lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 1 (2): e128.
9. Brady M (2014). Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out. Parasit Vectors, 7: 46.
10. Kementerian Kesehatan RI (2014). Menuju eliminasi filariasis 2020. 1st ed. Jakarta: Infodatin Kemenkes. 8 p.
11. World Health Organization (2013). Lymphatic filariasis: Training in monitoring and epidemiological assessment of mass drug administration for eliminating lymphatic filariasis. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. 85 p.
12. Rebollo MP, Bockarie MJ (2013). Toward the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by 2020: treatment update and impact assessment for the endgame. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 11 (7): 723–31.
13. World Health Organization (2012). Transmission assessment surveys in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: WHO position statement. Wkly Epidemiol Rec, 87 (48): 477–92.
14. Kabupaten Pekalongan (2010). Berita Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Pekalongan. Website Resmi Kabupaten Pekalongan. Kabupaten Pekalongan. p. 816.
15. Bhumiratana A, Intarapuk A, Koyadun S et al (2013). Current Bancroftian Filariasis Elimination on Thailand-Myanmar Border : Public Health Challenges toward Postgenomic MDA Evaluation. ISRN Trop Med, 2013:857935.
16. World Health Organization (2013). Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis; a handbook for national elimination programme. Rome, Italy: WHO Press. 1-8 p.
17. Witt C, Ottesen EA (2001). Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Trop Med Int Health, 6 (8): 582–606.
18. Kementerian Kesehatan RI (2010). Rencana nasional program akselerasi eliminasi filariasis di Indonesia 2010-2014. Jakarta: Subdit Filariasis dan Schistosomiasis-Dit P2B2-Ditjen P2PL;. 1-15 p.
19. Supali T, Djuardi Y, Bradley M et al (2013). Impact of Six Rounds of mass drug administration on brugian filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Eastern Indonesia. Gyorkos TW, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 7 (12): e2586.
20. Wibawa T, Satoto TBT (2016). Magnitude of Neglected tropical diseases in Indonesia at Postmillennium development goals era. J Trop Med, 2016: 5716785.
21. Ginandjar P, Saraswati LD, Taufik O et al (2017). The need of adequate information to achieve total compliance of mass drug administration in Pekalongan. IOP Conf Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 55: 12059.
22. Bhullar N, Maikere J (2010). Challenges in mass drug administration for treating lymphatic filariasis in Papua, Indonesia. Parasit Vectors, 3: 70.
23. Mandal NN, Bal MS, Das MK, Achary KG, Kar SK (2010). Lymphatic filariasis in children: age dependent prevalence in an area of India endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Trop Biomed, 27 (1): 41–6.
24. Nana-Djeunga HC, Tchatchueng-Mbougua JB, Bopda J E, et al (2015). Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 9 (9): e0004001.
25. Chesnais CB, Missamou F, Pion SD et al (2014). A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo. Parasit Vectors, 7:(300).
26. Jaoko WG, Michael E, Meyrowitsch DW et al (2007). Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African Communities. Infect Immun, 75 (12): 5651–62.
27. Rebollo MP, Sambou SM, Thomas Be L, et al (2015). Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Gambia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 9 (3): e0003642.
28. Addiss DG (2010). Global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: addressing the public health problem. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 4 (6): e741.
29. Alexander NDE (2015). Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 109 (3): 173–4.
30. Shenoy RK, Bockarie MJ (2011). Lymphatic filariasis in children: Clinical features, infection burdens and future prospects for elimination. Parasitology, 138 (12): 1559–68.
31. Junpee A, Tencomnao T, Sanprasert V, Nuchprayoon S (2010). Association between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) polymorphisms and asymptomatic bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Res, 107 (4): 807-16.
32. Terhell AJ, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Ruiterman Y et al (2000). Clustering of Brugia malayi infection in a community in South-Sulawesi, Indonesia. Parasitology, 120 (Pt 1): 23–9.
33. Cuenco KT, Halloran ME, Lammie PJ (2004). Assessment of families excess risk of lymphedema of the leg in a lymphatic filariasis-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 70 (2): 185–90.
34. Wahyuni S, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Syafruddin et al (2004). Clustering of filarial infection in an age-graded study: genetic, household and environmental influences. Parasitology, 128 (Pt 3): 315–21.
35. Cuenco KT, Halloran ME, Louis-Charles J, Lammie PJ (2004). A family study of lymphedema of the leg in a lymphatic
filariasis-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 70 (2): 180-4.
36. Cuenco KT, Ottesen EA, Williams SA et al (2009). Heritable factors play a major role in determining host responses to Wuchereria bancrofti infection in an isolated South Pacific island population. J Infect Dis, 200 (8): 1271–8.
37. Manhenje I, Galán-Puchades MT, Fuentes MV (2013). Socio-environmental variables and transmission risk of lymphatic filariasis in central and northern Mozambique. Geospat Health, 7 (2): 391–8.
38. Mukhtar M, Ensink J, Van der Hoek W et al (2006). Importance of Waste Stabilization Ponds and Wastewater Irrigation in the Generation of Vector Mosquitoes in Pakistan. J Med Entomol, 43 (5): 996–1003.
39. Febrianto B, Maharani A, Widiarti W (2008). Faktor risiko filariasis di Desa Samborejo, Kecamatan Tirto, Kabupaten Pekalongan, Jawa Tengah. Bul Penel Kesehatan, 36 (2): 48–58.
40. Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Pekalongan (2016). Peta dan Profil Kecamatan Tirto. Pekalongan: Website Resmi Kabupaten Pekalongan. p. 1.
41. Christiana O, Olajumoke M, Oyetunde S (2014). Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Travel Med Infect Dis, 12 (1): 95-101.
Published
2018-10-06
How to Cite
1.
GINANDJAR P, SARASWATI LD, SUPARYANTO D, SAKUNDARNO M, SUPALI T. The Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Elementary School Children Living in Endemic Areas: A Baseline Survey Prior to Mass Drug Administration in Pekalongan District-Indonesia. IJPH. 47(10):1484-92.
Section
Original Article(s)