Psychological Needs, Satisfaction and Intention to Migrate in Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Content Analysis
AbstractAbstract Background: The shortage of nurses is a global health problem and one of the main challenges for healthcare systems throughout the world including Iran. One of factors that affect the migration trends is psychological needs satisfaction. This study aimed at identifying the psychological factors which persuade Iranian nurses to migrate and suggesting necessary measures in this regard. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted through a traditional content analysis approach on 20 working Iranian nurses who are migrating to other countries between 2015 and 2017. Data were collected through interviews and observation in different wards of hospitals in Iran. Data were written and analyzed after reduction, naming them, obtaining analytical codes, and identifying the categories and subcategories using traditional method. Results: Three main categories in relation to satisfaction of the psychological needs and reasons for migration were obtained after data analysis. The first category was “authority” with two subcategories of independent decision-making power and being unconsidered, the second category was “social support” with three subcategories of communication with health team members, communication with nurse colleagues, and communication with nurse managers, and the third category was “job promotion” with four subcategories of addressing the routines, nurse role, job promotion opportunities, and teaching organizational environment. Conclusion: Identifying problems and obstacles to achieve the goal is the first step to solve the problem. This study provided further and clearer understanding of psychological causes regarding decision of nurses to migrate to developed countries, and nurses noted that the decision to migrate is in the search to meet their psychological needs.
Salami B, Dada FO, Adelakun FE (2016). Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration. Policy Polit Nurs Pract, 17:76-84.
Booth RZ (2002). The nursing shortage: a worldwide problem. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 10:392-400.
Hudspeth R (2013). Staffing healthy workplaces: some global nursing shortage issues. Nurs Adm Q, 37:374-6.
Hawkes M, Kolenko M, Shockness M, Diwaker K (2009). Nursing brain drain from India. Hum Resour Health, 7:5.
MacLean L, Hassmiller S, Shaffer F et al (2014). Scale, Causes, and Implications of the Primary Care Nursing Shortage. Annu Rev Public Health, 35:443-457.
Alliance GHW (2015). Health workforce 2030 – towards a global strategy on human resources for health. http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/globstrathrh-2030/en/
Naicker S, Plange-Rhule J, Tutt RC, Eastwood JB (2009). Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Developing Countries-Africa. Ethn Dis, 19(1 Suppl 1):S1-60-4.
Ross SJ, Polsky D, Sochalski J (2005). Nursing shortages and international nurse migration. Int Nurs Rev, 52:253-62.
Geun HG, Redman RW, McCullagh MC (2016). Turnover and Associated Factors in Asian Foreign-Educated Nurses. J Nurs Adm, 46:271-277.
Schmiedeknecht K, Perera M, Schell E et al (2015). Predictors of Workforce Retention Among Malawian Nurse Graduates of a Scholarship Program: A Mixed-Methods Study. Glob Health Sci Pract, 3:85-96.
Buchan J, O'May F, Dussault G (2013). Nursing Workforce Policy and the Economic Crisis: A Global Overview. J Nurs Scholarsh, 45:298-307.
Buchan J, Twigg D, Dussault G, Duffield C, Stone PW (2015). Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective. Int Nurs Rev, 62:162-170.
Nantsupawat A, Kunaviktikul W, Nantsupawat R et al (2017). Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave. Int Nurs Rev, 64:91-98
Green A, Kishi A, Esperat MC (2010). State policy and research initiatives focused on improving nursing workforce: an integrative literature review. Annu Rev Nurs Res, 28:63-112.
Janiszewski Goodin H (2003). The nursing shortage in the United States of America: an integrative review of the literature. J Adv Nurs, 43:335-43.
Carriere BK, Muise M, Cummings G, Newburn-Cook C (2009). Healthcare succession planning: an integrative review. J Nurs Adm, 39:548-55.
Abhicharttibutra K, Kunaviktikul W, Turale S et al (2017). Analysis of a government policy to address nursing shortage and nursing education quality. Int Nurs Rev, 64:22-32
[No authors listed] (2014). Nursing shortage 'critical' by 2017. Nurs N Z, 20:7.
Dywili S, Bonner A, O'Brien L (2013). Why do nurses migrate? a review of recent literature. J Nurs Manag, 21:511-520.
Sato F, Hayakawa K, Kamide K (2016). Investigation of mental health in Indonesian health workers immigrating to Japan under the Economic Partnership Agreement. Nurs Health Sci, 18:342-349.
Tingle J (2012). Perspectives on shared decision making in health care. Br J Nurs, 21:1042-3.
Burkett LS (2016). Collaborative decision making: Empowering nurse leaders. Nurs Manage, 47:7-10.
Xia Y, Zhang L, Zhao N (2016). Impact of Participation in Decision Making on Job Satisfaction: An Organizational Communication Perspective. Span J Psychol, 19:E58.
MacPhee M, Wardrop A, Campbell C (2010). Transforming work place relationships through shared decision making. J Nurs Manag, 18:1016-26.
Goh YS, Lopez V (2016). Job satisfaction, work environment and intention to leave among migrant nurses working in a publicly funded tertiary hospital. J Nurs Manag, 24:893-901.
Boamah SA, Read EA, Spence Laschinger HK (2017). Factors influencing new graduate nurse burnout development, job satisfaction, and patient care quality: A time-lagged study. J Adv Nurs, 73:1182-1195.
AbuAlRub R, El-Jardali F, Jamal D, Abu Al-Rub N (2016). Exploring the relationship between work environment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay of Jordanian nurses in underserved areas. Appl Nurs Res, 31:19-23.
Cicolini G, Comparcini D, Simonetti V (2014). Workplace empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction: a systematic literature review. J Nurs Manag, 22:855-71.
Choi SL, Goh CF, Adam MB, Tan OK (2016). Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of employee empowerment. Hum Resour Health, 14:73.
Duffield C, Baldwin R, Roche M, Wise S (2014). Job enrichment: creating meaningful career development opportunities for nurses. J Nurs Manag, 22:697-706.