Iranian Journal of Public Health 2018. 47(8):1172-1180.

Human Health Risk Assessment of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn through Consumption of Raw and Pasteurized Cow's Milk
Soheil SOBHANARDAKANI

Abstract


Abstract

Background: The analysis of the residual contents of heavy and toxic metals in foodstuff especially milk could be an important indicator of safety, quality, and level of pollution of the region in which the milk was produced. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to assess human health risk of residues levels of four metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) through consumption of raw and pasteurized cow's milk.

Methods: In this analytical-observational study, totally 72 samples of raw and pasteurized cow's milk samples were collected from market basket of Hamadan City, western Iran in 2014. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory, the concentration of metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Moreover, all statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package according to Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, One Way ANOVA (Duncan Multiple Range Test), Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlations.

Results: The mean concentrations (µg/kg) of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in raw milk samples were 0.36±0.28, 9.77±3.91, 32.83±20.80 and 253.70±87.96, respectively and in the pasteurized milk samples were 5.57±9.33, 8.41±5.99, 25.54±26.50 and 90.12±91.52, respectively. HRI values in adults and children via consumption of raw and pasteurized cow's milk were within the safe limits (HRI < 1).

Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some samples of raw and pasteurized milk by Cd, Pb and Zn, a control of heavy metals content during the whole production processing of milk must be applied.

 


Keywords


Food safety, Metal contamination, Health risk index, Milk

Full Text:

PDF

References


González-Montaña JR, Senís E, Gutiérrez A, Prieto F (2012). Cadmium and lead in bovine milk in the mining area of the Caudal River (Spain). Environ Monit Assess, 184(7): 4029-4034.

Hosseini SV, Sobhanardakani S, Tahergora-bi R, Delfieh P (2013). Selected heavy metals analysis of Persian sturgeon's (Acipenser persicus) caviar from Southern Caspian Sea. Biol Trace Elem Res, 154(3): 357-362.

Pavlovic I, Sikiric M, Havranek JL et al (2004). Lead and cadmium levels in raw cow's milk from an industrialised Croa-tian region determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Czech J Anim Sci, 49(4): 164-168.

Swarup D, Patra RC, Naresh R et al (2005). Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk. Sci Total Environ, 347(1-3):106-10.

Suturovic Z, Kravic S, Milanovic S et al (2014). Determination of heavy metals in milk and fermented milk products by po-tentiometric stripping analysis with con-stant inverse current in the analytical step. Food Chem, 155: 120-125.

Licata P, Trombetta D, Cristani M et al (2004). Levels of “toxic” and “essential” metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy. En-viron Int, 30(1): 1-6.

Ghindini S, Zanardi E, Battaglia A et al (2005). Comparison of contaminat and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from Northern Italy. Food Addit Contam, 22(1): 9-14.

Özcan MM, AL Juhaimi FY (2012). Deter-mination of heavy metals in bee honey with connected and not connected metal wires using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES). Environ Monit Assess, 184(4): 2373-2375.

Saracoglu S, Tuzen M, Soylak M (2009). Evaluation of trace element contents of dried apricot samples from Turkey. J Hazard Mater, 167(1-3): 647-652.

Ackah M, Anim AK, Zakaria N et al (2014). Determination of some heavy metal lev-els in soft drinks on the Ghanaian mar-ket using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Environ Monit Assess, 186(12): 8499-8507.

Needleman H (2004). Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med, 55: 209-222.

Finster ME, Kimberly AG, Helen JB (2004). Lead levels of edibles grown in contami-nated residential soils: a field survey. Sci Total Environ, 320(2-3): 245-257.

Liu WT, Zhou QX, Zhang YL, Wei S (2010). Lead accumulation in different Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars. J Environ Man-age, 91(3): 781-788.

Grattan BJ, Freake HC (2012). Zinc and cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in breast cancer. Nutrients, 4(7): 648–675.

Sobhanardakani S, Jamshidi K (2015). As-sessment of metals (Co, Ni, and Zn) content in the sediments of Mighan Wet-land using geo-accumulation index. Iran J Toxicol, 9(30):1386-1390.

World Health Organization (2010). WHO Human Health Risk Assessment Toolkit: Chemical Hazards. International Pro-gramme on Chemical Safety. www.who.int/ipcs/methods/harmonization/areas/ra_toolkit/en/

Sobhanardakani S (2016). Health risk as-sessment of As and Zn in canola and soybean oils consumed in Kermanshah City. J Adv Environ Health Res, 4(2): 62-67.

Ru QM, Feng Q, He JZ (2013). Risk as-sessment of heavy metals in honey con-sumed in Zhejiang province, southeast-ern China. Food Chem Toxicol, 53: 256-262.

Liang Q, Xue ZJ, Wang F et al (2015). Con-tamination and health risks from heavy metals in cultivated soil in Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, China. Environ Monit Assess, 187(12): 754.

Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng Y, Huang YZ, Zhu YG (2008). Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops ir-rigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut, 152(3): 686-692.

Jan FA, Ishaq M, Khan S et al (2010). A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). J Hazard Mater, 179(1-3): 612-621.

Guo J, Yue T, Li X, Yuan Y (2016). Heavy metal levels in kiwifruit orchard soils and trees and its potential health risk assess-ment in Shaanxi, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 23(14): 14560-6.

Abdi F, Atarodi Kashani Z, Mirmiran P, Es-teki T (2015). Surveying global and Irani-an food consumption patterns: A review of the literature. J Fasa Univ Med Sci, 5(2): 159-167. [Persian]

Falco G, Ilobet J, Bocio A, Domingo JL (2006). Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of ed-ible marine species. J Agric Food Chem, 54(16):6106-12.

Omar WA, Zaghloul KH, Abdel-Khalek AA, Abo-Hegab S (2013). Risk assess-ment and toxic effects of metal pollution in two cultured and wild fish species from highly degraded aquatic habitats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 65(4): 753-764.

Tang W, Cheng J, Zhao W, Wang W (2015). Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish con-sumption. J Environ Sci (China), 34:107-15.

Saha N, Zaman M (2013). Evaluation of possible health risks of heavy metals by consumption of foodstuffs available in the central market of Rajshahi City, Bang-ladesh. Environ Monit Assess, 185(5): 3867-3878.

Malhat F, Hagag M, Saber A, Fayz AE (2012). Contamination of Cows milk by heavy metal in Egypt. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 88(4): 611-613.

Zhu F, Fan W, Wang X et al (2011). Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China. Food Chem Toxicol, 49(12): 3081-3085.

Parkpian P, Leong ST, Laortanakul P, Thunthaisong N (2003). Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand. Environ Monit Assess, 85(2): 157-173.

Simsek O, Gultekin R, Oksuz O, Kurultay S (2000). The effect of environmental pollution on the heavy metal content of raw milk. Nahrung, 44(5): 360-363.

Ataro A, McCrindle RI, Botha BM et al (2008). Quantification of trace elements in raw cow's milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Food Chem, 111(1): 243-248.

Valiukenaite R, Stankeviciene M, Stankevicius H, Skibniewska KA (2006). Lead and cadmium were determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. Pol J Food Nutr Sci, 56: 243-246.

Vahidinia AA, Salehi I, Beyginegad H et al (2013). Assessment of lead and cadmium contamination and influencing factors in raw milk from regions of Hamadan province. J Food Hyg, 3(3): 39-47. [Persian]

Bonyadian M, Moshtaghi H, Soltany Z (2006). Study on the residual of lead and cadmium in raw and pasteurized milks in Shahrekord area. Iran J Vet Res, 2(2): 74-81. [Persian]

Sobhanardakani S, Tizhosh M (2016). Determination of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu contents in raw milk from the Khorram Abad dairies. J Food Hyg, 6(2): 43-50. [Persian]

Sun WC, Luo YH, Ma HQ (2011). Preliminary study of metal in yak (Bos grunniens) milk from Qilian of the Qinghai Plateau. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 86(6): 653-656.

Javed I, Jan I, Muhammad F et al (2009). Heavy metal residues in the milk of cattle and goats during winter season. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 82(5): 616-620.

Hermansen JE, Badsberg JH, Kristensen T, Gundersen V (2005). Major and trace elements in organically or conventionally produced milk. J Dairy Res, 72(3): 362-368.

Matovic V, Buha A, Ðukić-Ćosić D, Bulat Z (2015). Insight into the oxidative stress induced by lead and/or cadmium in blood, liver and kidneys. Food Chem Toxicol, 78: 130-140.

Meshref AMS, Moselhy WA, El-Houda N, Hassan Y (2014). Heavy metals and trace elements levels in milk and milk products. J Food Meas Charact, 8(4): 381-388.

Pilarczyk R, Wójcik J, Czerniak P et al (2013). Concentrations of toxic heavy metals and trace elements in raw milk of Simmental and Holstein-Friesian cows from organic farm. Environ Monit Assess, 185(10): 8383-8392.

Sikirić M, Brajenović N, Pavlović I et al (2003). Determination of metals in cow's milk by flame atomic absorption spec-trophotometry. Czech J Anim Sci, 48(11): 481-486.

Rodríguez Rodríguez EM, Sanz Alaejos M, Díaz Romero C (1999). Chemometric studies of several minerals in milks. J Agric Food Chem, 47(4): 1520-4.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.