Iranian Journal of Public Health 2018. 47(8):1145-1150.

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency during Second Trimester of Pregnancy in Shanghai China, Risk Factors and Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes
Ling YANG, Lige SONG, Xiao XU, Yihan LIU, Huijuan LI, LongYing TANG



Background: Vitamin D plays important roles in various physiological processes. Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women in some regions, such as China. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency during second trimester of pregnancy in Shanghai China, and explore its risk factors and effects on pregnant outcomes.

Methods: Overall, 23100 pregnant women (2013 to 2017, Shanghai, China) were included and vitamin D concentrations were measured at 16 weeks of gestation. Correlations between vitamin D concentrations and participants’ general data and maternal and infant outcomes were analyzed by chi square test. Non-conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to screen the independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.

Results: Vitamin D deficiency was significantly correlated with aging, education level, smoking, dirking, BMI before pregnancy, body weight gain during pregnancy (P<0.01), the use of vitamin D supplement and milk consumption, and older than 30 years, drinking, smoking, BMI before pregnancy> 36, body weight gain during pregnancy< 40g per day, no daily milk consumption, no vitamin D supplement, and education lever below college were independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in second trimester of pregnancy. In addition, vitamin D deficiency in second trimester of pregnancy was closely correlated with the occurrence of a serious of adverse maternal and infant outcomes.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was still common among women in second trimester of pregnancy in Shanghai China. Vitamin D deficiency was closely correlated with the occurrence of a serious of adverse maternal and infant outcomes.



Vitamin D deficiency; Second trimester of pregnancy; Prevalence; Risk factor; Pregnant outcome

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