Assessment of Ambient Air Pollution in Istanbul during 2003-2013
AbstractAbstract Background: We investigated the air quality changes from 2003-2013 in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: We studied SO2, CO and PM concentration patterns in 10 districts of Istanbul. The data was obtained from air pollution monitoring stations of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection Department. We compared the variations of mean concentrations monthly, yearly and seasonally. The winter season was accepted from Oct to Mar and the summer season from Apr to Sep. Results: The highest monthly average values for all measurements of sulfur dioxide and CO were 12.61, 949.19 µg/m3 in Sarachane respectively. The Highest value of the monthly average of the Particulate Matter was 72.07 µg/m3 in Kartal district. During the period between 2003-2013, monthly mean concentration values of different districts differed significantly in levels of SO2 (P=0.012), CO (P=0.029), and PM (P=0.024). Conclusion: The emissions of air pollutants (SO2, PM, and CO) decreased considerably from 2003 to 2013.
Fenger J (1999). Urban air quality. Atmos Environ, 33: 4877–4900.
Riga-Karandinos AN, Saitanis C (2005). Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two typical Mediterranean coastal cities in Greece. Chemosphere, 59:1125-36.
Özden Ö, Döğeroğlu T, Kara S (2008). Assessment of ambient air quality in Eskişehir, Turkey. Environ Int, 34:678-87.
Lim LL, Hughes SJ, Hellawell EE (2005). Integrated decision support system for urban air quality assessment. Environ Model Softw, 20: 947–954.
Fang SH, Chen HW (1996). Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan. Atmos Environ, 30: 735–741.
Bailey D, Solomon G (2004). Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air. Envi-ron Impact Assess Rev, 24: 749–774.
Mao X, Guo X, Chang Y, Peng Y (2005). Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications. Energy Policy, 33: 307–318.
Wolf C (2002). Urban air pollution and health: An ecological study of chronic rhinosinusitis in Cologne, Germany. Health Place, 8: 129–139.
Oudinet JP, Méline J, Chelmicki W et al (2006). Towards a multidisciplinary and integrated strategy in the assessment of adverse health effects related to air pollution: the case study of Cracow (Poland) and asthma. Environ Pollut, 143:278–284.
Duan J, Bi X, Tan J et al (2007). Seasonal variation on size distribution and concentration of PAHs in Guangzhou city, China. Chemosphere, 67: 614-622.
Ozcan H (2012). Long Term Variations of the Atmospheric Air Pollutants in Istanbul City. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 9:781–790.
Murena F (2004). Measuring air quality over large urban areas: development and application of an air pollution index at the urban area of Naples. Atmos Environ, 38: 6195–6202.
Salvi S (2007). Health effects of ambient air pollution in children. Paediatr Respir Rev, 8:275-80.
Dales R, Burnett RT, Smith-Doiron M, et al (2004). Air pollution and sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics, 113: e628–31.
World Health Orgaization (2014). 7 million deaths annually linked to air pollution. http://who.int/phe/eNews_63.pdf
Tang CS, Chang LT, Lee HC et al (2007). Effects of personal particulate matter on peak expiratory flow rate of asthmatic children. Sci Total Environ, 382: 43–51.
Brauer M, Hoek G, Van Vliet P et al (2002). Air pollution from traffic and the development of respiratory infections and asthmatic and allergic symptoms in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 166: 1092–1098.
EPA (2008). Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-08/documents/careforyourair.pdf
Khoder MI (2002). Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area. Chem-osphere, 49: 675–684.
Kan H, Heiss G, Rose KM et al (2007). Traffic exposure and lung function in adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Thorax, 62(10):873-9.
Lu WZ, He HD, Dong LY (2011). Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks sing principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Build Environ, 46: 577-583.
Elbir T, Muezzinoglu A, Bayram A (2000). Evaluation of some air pollution indica-tors in Turkey. Environ Int, 26: 5–10.
Capraz O, Efe B, Deniz A (2016). Study on the association between air pollution and mortality in İstanbul, 2007–2012. Atmos Pollut Res, 7:147–154.
Zmirou D, Schwartz J, Saez M, et al (1998). Time-series analysis of air pollution and cause-specific mortality. Epidemiology, 9: 495–503.
Naddafi K, Sowlat MH, Safari MH (2012). Integrated Assessment of air pollution in Tehran, over the period from september 2008 to september 2009. Iran J Public Health, 41(2): 77-86.
Stieb DM, Judek S, Burnett RT (2003). Meta-analysis of time-series studies of air pollution and mortality: update in relation to the use of generalized additive models. J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 53: 258–261.
Mayer H, Haustein CH, Matzarakis A (1999). Urban air pollution caused by motor-traffic. Air Pollution, 6: 251- 260.
Ercüment N, Vançelik S, Acemoğlu H, et al (2008). Ambient air pollution in Erzurum City Center during 2003-2006. TAF Prev Med Bull, 7: 237-242.