Nutrient Intakes Status and Physical Inactivity among Overweight and Obese School Children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

  • Wan Putri Elena WAN DALI Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Hamid Jan JAN MOHAMED Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Hafzan YUSOFF Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia
Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, School children, Nutrient intakes, Physical activity


Abstract Background: The study examined the baseline findings of a controlled intervention study comprising anthropometric measurements, nutrient intakes, and physical activity among overweight or obese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: The study was completed in 2016 and the baseline data were gathered from four groups in a school-based randomized community trial among Year Five students from primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Participants completed anthropometry assessment, three-day dietary record, and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results: The prevalence of obesity was higher among the boys (52.5%). Mean energy intake was significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P=0.003). Twenty-five percent of the participants had exceeded the recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) of energy recommended. The calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin were also significantly higher among boys as compared to the girls (P˂0.05). Boys also exhibited a significantly higher score on performance of physical activity (mean=2.68; SD=0.60) as compared to the girls (mean=2.38; SD=0.51) however it is still in the category of moderately active. Approximately 14.4% of children had a very low physical activity level. Conclusion: Overweight and obese boys had higher energy and fat intakes but were more physically active as compared to the girls. These findings might be useful in planning appropriate intervention strategies to be designed and delivered especially for this cohort.  


Moy FM, Gan CY, Siti Zaleha MK (2006). Eating patterns of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur. Mal J Nutr, 12 (1): 1-10.

Noradilah MJ, Zahara AM (2012). Ac-ceptance of a test vegetable after repeated exposures among preschoolers. Malays J Nutr, 18 (1): 67-75.

Kelantan Info (2010). Kelantan cuisine. Available from:

Malaysiakini (2007). Banning fast food not right thing to do. Available from:

Norimah AK Jr, Safiah M, Jamal K et al (2008). Food consumption patterns: find-ings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malays J Nutr, 14 (1): 25-39.

Guthold R, Cowan MJ, Autenrieth CS et al (2010). Physical activity and sedentary be-havior among schoolchildren: a 34-country comparison. J Pediatr, 157(1):43-49.

Wong JE, Parikh P, Poh BK et al (2016). Physical activity of Malaysian primary school children comparison by socio-demographic variables and activity do-mains. Asia Pac J Public Health, 28 (5): 35S-46S.

Dan SP, Mohd NM, Zalilah MS (2011). De-termination of factors associated with physical activity levels among adolescents attending school in Kuantan, Malaysia. Malays J Nutr, 17 (2): 175-187.

Graf C, Koch B, Falkowski G et al (2008). School-based prevention: effects on obe-sity and physical performance after 4 years. J Sports Sci, 26 (10): 987-994.

Shariff ZM, Bukhari SS, Othman N et al (2008). Nutrition education intervention improves nutrition knowledge, attitude and practices of primary school children: a pilot study. Int Electr J Health Educ, 11: 119-132.

Sisson SB, Krampe M, Anundson K, Castle S (2016). Review Article Obesity preven-tion and obesogenic behavior interven-tions in child care: A systematic review. Prev Med, 87: 57-69.

Wan Putri Elena WD, Hamid Jan JM, Hafzan Y (2015). Tracking of interven-tions on overweight and obese school children: a systematic literature review (2000-2014). Health Care Curr Rev, 3: 140.

Daniel WW (1999). Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Wan AM, Norazawati AK, Lee YY (2012). Overweight and obesity among Malay primary school children in Kota Bahru, Kelantan: Parental beliefs, attitudes and child feeding practices. Malays J Nutr, 18 (1): 27-36.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). BMI for age reference for 5 to 19 years.

FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and Pro-tein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Black AE, Cole TJ (2000). Within- and be-tween-subject variation in energy ex-penditure measured by the doubly-labelled water technique: implications for validating reported dietary energy intake. Euro J Clin Nutr, 54: 386-394.

Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE, Donen RM. The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. Canada: College of Ki-nesiology, University of Saskatchewan; 2004. pp. 1-38.

Dan SP Jr, Mohd Nasir MT, Zalilah MS (2007). Sex and ethnic differentials in physical activity levels of adolescents in Kuantan. Malays J Nutr, 13(2): 109-20.

National Academy of Sciences (2005). Die-tary reference intakes for energy, carbo-hydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids (Macronutri-ents). A report of the Panel on macronu-trients, subcommittees on upper refer-ence levels of nutrients and interpretation and uses of dietary reference intakes and the standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes. In-stitute of Medicine of the National Acad-emies, Washington, D.C.

Ahmad AZ, Rusidah S, Azli B et al (2013). Nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children aged 8-10 years: findings from the 2008 national IDD survey. Mal J Nutr, 19 (2): 149-161.

Soo KL, Wan AM, Abdul MH, Lee YY (2011). Dietary practices among over-weight and obese children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Malays J Nutr, 17 (1): 87-95.

Wisniewski AB, Chernausek SD (2009). Gender in Childhood Obesity: Family Environment, Hormones, and Genes. Gend Med, 1: 76-85.

Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak Ret al (2013). Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 22(3):408-415.

Guo X, Zheng L, Li Y et al (2013). Preva-lence and risk factors of being over-weight or obese among children and adolescents in northeast China. Pediatr Res, 74: 443-449.

Ricciardelli LA, McCabe MP (2001). Chil-dren's body image concerns and eating disturbance: A review of the litera-ture. Clin Psychol Rev, 21(3): 325-344.

Keski-Rahkonen A, Kaprio J, Rissanen A et al (2003). Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Euro J Clin Nutr, 57(7): 842–853.

Van der Heijden AA, Hu FB, Rimm EB et al (2007). A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among US men. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15(10): 2463-2469.

Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ et al (2003). Association between eating patterns and obesity in a free living US adult popula-tion. Am J Epidemiol, 158(1): 85-92.

Lazzeri G, Pammolli A, Pilato V, Giachhi MV (2011). Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents’ BMI and educational level: a cross-sectional survey. Nutr J, 10: 76.

Fisher JO, Johnson RK, Lindquist C et al (2000). Influence of body composition on the accuracy of reported energy intake in children. Obes Res, 8(8): 597–603.

Poh BK, Ng BK, Siti Haslinda MD et al (2013). Nutritional status and dietary in-takes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malay-sia). Br J Nutr, 110 (3): S21-35.

Watts AW, Masse LC, Barr SI et al (2014). Parent-child assocations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among over-weight and obese adolescents. J Acad Nutr Diet, 114 (10): 1580-1586.

Hensrud DD (2004). Diet and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 20: 119-124.

Nik Nairan A , Mazlin Mohamad M, Mohd Harriszamani AB et al (2015). Trend on Fast Food Consumption in Relation to Obesity among Selangor Urban Com-munity. Procedia – Soc Behav Sci, 202 :505 – 513.

Caspersen CJ, Pereira MA, Curran KM (2000). Changes in physical activity pat-terns in the United States by sex and cross-sectional age. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32 (9): 1601-1609.

Teixeira e Seabra AF, Maia JA, Mendonça DM et al (2008). Age and sex differences in physical activity of Portuguese adoles-cents. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 40 (1): 65-70.

Bai Y. Measuring general activity levels in children and adolescents using self-report: youth activity profile [Master the-sis]. Program of Study Committee, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; 2012.

Van Mechelen W, Twisk JWR, Post GB et al (2000). Physical activity of young people: the Amsterdam longitudinal growth and health study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32 (9): 1610-1616.

Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ et al (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Paediatr, 146 (6): 732-737.

How to Cite
WAN DALI WPE, JAN MOHAMED HJ, YUSOFF H. Nutrient Intakes Status and Physical Inactivity among Overweight and Obese School Children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. IJPH. 47(8):1098-107.
Original Article(s)