Measurement of Methanol and Ethanol Contents in Most Com-monly Used Herbal Distillates Produced by Three Famous Brands
AbstractAbstractBackground: Herbal distillates have been used for many centuries as herbal medicines in Traditional Persian medicine. The main purpose of this study was to determine methanol and ethanol contents in commonly-used industrial herbal distillates produced by three famous factories in Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran (2014-2015).Methods: Ninety herbal waters of ten types of most commonly used herbal distillates including Willow (Salix alba), Ajava seeds (Carum copticum), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Poleigamander (Teucrium polium), Forty plants, Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Camel thorn (Alhagi camelorum), Chicory (Cichorium intybus), Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis) and Rose water (Rosa damascene) of three famous company in Mashhad were randomly bought from market. Methanol and ethanol contents of each sample were measured by Gas chromatography according to the standard method. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS using appropriate descriptive statistical tests.Results: The highest average amount of methanol of all tested distillates is for forty plants (46.06 mg/dl) and M. piperita (46.72 mg/dl) and the lowest for ajava seed (8.46 mg/dl). The maximum and minimum ethanol level was reported for rose water (0.39 mg/dl) and ajava seed (0.15 mg/dl), respectively.Conclusion: High methanol and ethanol concentrations may induce toxicity in people taking these products regularly for a long time. Therefore, considering the harmful effects of methanol and ethanol on human health, further studies are required for determining permitted levels of methanol and ethanol in herbal distillates.
Forbes RJ (1970). A short history of the art of distillation: from the beginnings up to the death of Cellier Blumenthal. E. J. BRILL, Leiden, Netherland, 405 pages.
Haw SG (2006). "Wine, women and poison". In: Marco Polo in China. Routledge. pp. 147–148.
Taylor FS (1945). The Evolution of the Still. Ann Sci, 5 (3): 186.
History of civilizations of Central Asia (1950). Motilal Banarsidass Publ, ISBN 81-208-1596-3, vol. IV, part two, p. 228.
Mousavi R, Namaei-Ghassemi M, Layegh M et al (2011). Determination of Metha-nol Concentrations in Traditional Herbal Waters of Different Brands in Iran. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 14(4): 361–368.
Kavet R, Nauss KM (1990). The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors. Crit Rev Toxicol, 21:21-50.
Givens M, Kalbfleisch K, Bryson S (2008). Comparison of methanol exposure routes reported to Texas poison control centers. West J Emerg Med, 9(3):150-3.
Pritchard J (2007). Methanol Toxicological Overview. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/govern-ment/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/456293/Methanol_TO_PHE_260815.pdf.
Solhi H, Delavar M, Abdollahi M (2009). Comparison of methanol concentration in handmade herbal essences produced in Arak city with industrial produced herbal essences with different commercial brands. J Arak Univ Med Sci, 12:71–77.
d'Alessandro A, Osterloh JD, Chuwers P, Ouinlan PJ, Kelly TJ, Becker CE (1994). Formate in serum and urine after con-trolled methanol exposure at the thresh-old limit value. Environ Health Perspect, 102(2):178-81.
Liesivuori J, Savolainen H (1991). Methanol and formic acid toxicity: biochemical mechanisms. Pharmacol Toxicol, 69:157-63.
Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP (2002). American Academy of Clinical Toxicology Ad Hoc Committee on the Treatment Guidelines for Methanol Poi-soning, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxi-col Clin Toxicol, 40:415–446.
Epker JL, Bakker J (2010). Accidental meth-anol ingestion: Case report. BMC Emerg Med, 10:3.
Karimi Gh, Hassanjadeh M, Shahidi N, Samiei Z (2007). Methanol determinehion in herbal distillates produeed with spectro photometry method in Mashhad. Gilan Baroo, 7(1): 759-77.
Kerns W, Tomaszewski C, McMartin K, Ford M, Brent J (2002). Formate kinetics in methanol poisoning. J Clin Toxicol, 40:137-43.
Vonghia L, Leggio L, Ferrulli A et al. (2008). Acute alcohol intoxication. Eur J Intern Med, 19(8):561-567.
Bouchard M, Droz PO, Carrier G (2001). A biologically based dynamic model for predicting the disposition of methanol and its metabolites in animals and hu-mans. Toxicol Sci, 64:169–184.
Laats MM, Grosdenis F, Recourt K, Vor-agen AGJ, Wichers HJ (1997). Partial pu-rification and characterization of pectin methylesterase from green beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem, 45:572–577.
Anthon GE, Barrett DM (2006). Characteri-zation of the temperature activation of pectin methylesterase in green beans and tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem, 54:204–211.
Cabaroglu T (2005). Methanol contents of Turkish varietal wines and effect of pro-cessing. Food Control, 16:177–181.
Gissinger B (2005). Top 5 Urban Legends of Alcohol and Carb Counting. Adams Media press release.
Skilnik B (2005). The Low Carb Bartender: Carb Counts of Beer, Wine, Mixed Drinks and More. Adams Media.
Delirrad M, Ghasempour Z, Hassanzadazar H et al (2012). Determination of Metha-nol Content in Herbal Distillates Pro-duced in Urmia Using Spectrophotome-try. Iran J Toxicol, 6(16): 594-599.
Karimi Gh, Hasanzadeh M, Shahidi N, Samiei Z (2008). Quantitative determina-tion of methanol in plant water produced in Mashhad by spectrophotometry method. J Med Plants, 25:56–59.