In Vivo Anti-Malarial Activity of Heracleum persicum Fruit Extract, in Combination with Chloroquine against Chloroquine–Sensitive Strain of Plasmodium berghei

  • Nahideh MAZHARI Students’ Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi NATEGHPOUR Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Peyman HEYDARIAN Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Leila FARIVAR Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Effat SOURI Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemical, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Afsaneh MOTEVALLI HAGHI Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Heracleum persicum, Plasmodium berghei, Chloroquine, Combination, In vivo

Abstract

Background: We evaluated the anti-malarial activity of Heracleum persicum individually and in combination with chloroquine. Methods: This study was conducted at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2015-2016. The Peter̛ s method was used for determining fifty percent effective dose (ED50) of the H. persicum extract and chloroquine individually against chloroquine sensitive P. berghei in small white mice. Six experimental groups for H. persicum and 6 groups for chloroquine and two control group (positive and negative) were considered for determination of ED50. Interaction between H. persicum and chloroquine also was evaluated based on fixed ratios method. Ratios of 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, 80/20, 100/0 of ED50 of chloroquine and H. persicum respectively were tested against the parasite. Then inhibitory effects of two drugs were calculated and plotted in the relevant graphs. Results: Overall, 1500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of H. persicum against P. berghei resulted in ED50 and ED74 respectively. ED50 of chloroquine against the parasite was obtained as 1.4 mg/kg of mouse body weight. Moreover, combination of H. persicum and chloroquine showed a weak potentiation in ratios of 40/60 (chloroquine +H. persicum) with 64% inhibition, but not in other ratios. Conclusion: Although H. persicum individually showed a reasonable antimalarial efficacy against chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, in combination with chloroquine it showed additive or antagonism result except in ratios of 40%CQ+60%HP.  

References

Okwa Oo (2012). Malaria Parasites. First published March 2012.

Autino B, Noris A, Russo R et al (2012). Ep-idemiology of malaria in endemic areas. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis, 4(1): e2012060. doi: 10.4084/MJHID.2012.060.

World Health Organization 2015, World Malaria Report 2015, http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/index.html

Naghibi F, Esmaeili S, Abdullah N et al (2013). In vitro and in vivo antimalarial eval-uations of myrtle extract, a plant tradi-tionally used for treatment of parasitic disorders. Biomed Res Int, 2013:316185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/316185.

Hamedi Y (2006). Drug resistance of Malaria in Iran. Hormozgan J Med Sci, 10(2):93-9.

Hanafi-Bojd A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi M et al (2012). Entomological and epide-miological attributes for malaria transmis-sion and implementation of vector con-trol in southern Iran. Acta Trop, 121(2):85-92.

Karbalaei Z, Nateghpour M, Maghsoud A et al (2014). Evaluation of the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Artemisia annua against Plasmodium berghei in comparison with chloroquine in sourian mice. Kurdi-stan Univ Med Sci, 19(2):9-20. [In Persian]

Mombo-Ngoma G, Kleine C, Basra A et al (2012). Prospective evaluation of arteme-ther-lumefantrine for the treatment of non-falciparum and mixed-species malar-ia in Gabon. Malar J, 11:120.

Abuga KO (2009). A study of the antimalar-ial constituents of cassia abbreviata oliv and strychnos Henningsii Gilg. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/19774.

Azadbakht M (2008). 5 herbal medicines against common protozoa. Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 18(67): 118-132 [In Persian].

Asgarpanah J, Dadashzadeh Mehrabani G, Ahmadi SM et al (2012). Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer: A review. J Med Plants Res, 6:1813-20.

Ghafari S, Esmaeili S, Naghibi F et al (2013). Plants used to treat “tabe rebá”(malaria like fever) in Iranian traditional medicine. Int J Herb Med, 1 (6): 168-176.

Naraghi M. Medicinal flowers and plants. Tehran. Amir Kabir publications; 1972.

Kalauni SK, Suresh A, Yasuhiro T et al (2006). Antimalarial activity of cassane- and norcassane-type diterpenes from Caesalpinia crista and their structure-activity relationship. Biol Pharm Bull, 29(5):1050-52.

Suksamrarn S, Panseeta P, Kunchanawatta S et al (2006). Ceanothane- and lupane-type triterpenes with antiplasmodial and anti-mycobacterial activities from Ziziphus cambodiana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 54(4):535-537.

Chukwujeku JC, Smith P, Coombes PH et al (2005). Antiplasmodial diterpenoid from the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens. J Ethnophar-macol, 102(2):295-297.

Peters W (1975). The chemotherapy of ro-dent malaria, XXII: the value of drug-resistant strains of P. berghei in screening for blood schizontocidal activity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 69(2):155-71.

WHO, 2016. Giemsa staining of malaria blood films. Malaria Microscopy Stand-ard Operating Procedure –MM-SOP-07A, Version 1. http://www.wpro.who.int/mvp/lab_quality/2096_oms_gmp_sop_07a_rev.pdf

Nateghpour M, Farivar L, Souri E et al (2012). The effect of Otostegia persica in combination with chloroquine on chlo-roquine _sensitive and chloro-quine_resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei using in vivo fixed ratios method. Iran J Pharm Res. 11(2): 583-588.

Khodadadi M, Nateghpour M, Souri E et al (2013). Evaluation of effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Artemisia aucheri, indi-vidually and in combination with chloro-quine, on chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in sourian mice. Iran J Public Health, 42(8):883-8.

Chawira AN, Warhurst DC, Robinson BL et al (1987). The effect of combinations of qinghaosu (artemisinin) with standard antimalarial drugs in the suppressive treatment of malaria in mice. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 81(4): 554-558.

Kayembe J, Taba K, Ntumba K et al (2012). In vitro antimalarial activity of 11 terpenes isolated from Ocimum gratissimum and Cas-sia alata leaves. Screening of their binding affinity with Haemin. J Plant Stud, 1(2):168-172.

Hemati A, Azarnia M, Angaji A (2010). Me-dicinal effects of Heracleum persicum (Gol-par). Middle-East J Sci Res, 5(3):174-6.

Safarnezhad F, Khatami Nejad M, Nasrol-lahi A et al (2012). The antimicrobial ef-fect of methanol extracts of Eucalyptus, Satureia hortensis and Heracleum glabrescens on Giardia cysts. Med Lab J, 6(2):21-7.

Sedaghat MM, Sanei Dehkordi A, Abai MR et al (2011). Larvicidal activity of essential Oils of Apiaceae plants against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis, 5(2):51-59.

Naeini A, Shokri H and Khosravi A (2013). Immunostimulatory effects of aqueous extract of Heracleum persicum Desf. on mouse peritoneal macrophages. Jundisha-pur J Microbiol, 6(4): e5373.

Salminen A, Lehtonen M, Suuronen T et al (2008). Terpenoids: natural inhibitors of NF-κB signaling with anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential. Cell Mol Life Sci, 65(19):2979-2999.

Published
2018-06-20
How to Cite
1.
MAZHARI N, NATEGHPOUR M, HEYDARIAN P, FARIVAR L, SOURI E, MOTEVALLI HAGHI A. In Vivo Anti-Malarial Activity of Heracleum persicum Fruit Extract, in Combination with Chloroquine against Chloroquine–Sensitive Strain of Plasmodium berghei. IJPH. 47(6):868-74.
Section
Original Article(s)