Effect of Age and Sex on Gait Characteristics in the Korean Elderly People
AbstractBackground: Incidence of falling in the older-elderly is higher than that of the younger-elderly. In addition, falls occur more in elderly women than in elderly men. However, it is unclear whether age and sex-specific differences exist in gait characteristics of the elderly. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-related differences in gait characteristics of the Korean elderly people.Methods: A total of 75 younger-elderly subjects (age of 65-74 yr; 21 men and 54 women) and 59 older-elderly subjects (age of 75-90 yr; 15 men and 44 women) participated in this study in 2014. All participants walked a distance of 8 m across a GaitRite walkway with self-selected speed. The effects of age and sex on spatiotemporal gait variables in the Korean elderly people were analyzed before and after adjusting height as covariate.Results: The older-elderly group slowly walked with shorter stride length (P<0.05) and step length (P<0.05) compared to the younger-elderly, regardless of their height. There was no significant sex difference after adjusting height as covariate, although elderly women walked with shorter stride length (P<0.01) and step length (P<0.01) than elderly men. The elderly women group walked with more variable stride time (P<0.05) and with longer double support (P<0.01).Conclusion: Age-related changes and sex difference among the elderly existed in specific gait variables. Characterizing gait patterns of the Korean elderly people considering both age and sex would be beneficial to assess gait of the elderly with risk of falls for fall interventions.
Campbell AJ, Reinken J, Allan BC, Martinez GS (1981). Falls in old age: a study of frequency and related clinical factors. Age Ageing, 10(4): 264-270.
Prudham D, Evans JG (1981). Factors asso-ciated with falls in the elderly: a commu-nity study. Age Ageing, 10(3): 141-146.
Kojima S, Furuna T, Ikeda N, Nakamura M, Sawada Y (2008). Falls among communi-ty-dwelling elderly people of Hokkaido, Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int, 8(4): 272-277.
Rubenstein LZ (2006). Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing, 35(Suppl 2): ii37-ii41.
Aoyagi K, Ross PD, Davis JW et al (1998). Falls among community-dwelling elderly in Japan. J Bone Miner Res, 13(9): 1468-1474.
Cho CY, Kamen G (1998). Detecting bal-ance deficits in frequent fallers using clini-cal and quantitative evaluation tools. J Am Geriatr Soc, 46(4): 426-430.
Sattin RW (1992). Falls among older per-sons: a public health perspective. Annu Rev Public Health, 13:489-508.
Norton R, Campbell AJ, Lee-Joe T, Robin-son E, Butler M (1997). Circumstances of falls resulting in hip fractures among old-er people. J Am Geriatr Soc, 45(9): 1108-12.
Verghese J, Holtzer R, Lipton RB, Wang C (2009). Quantitative gait markers and in-cident fall risk in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 64A(8): 896-901.
Toulotte C, Thevenon A, Watelain E, Fabre C (2006). Identification of healthy elderly fallers and non-fallers by gait analysis un-der dual-task conditions. Clin Rehabil, 20(3): 269-276.
Feltner ME, MacRae PG, McNitt-Gray JL (1994). Quantitative gait assessment as a predictor of prospective and retrospec-tive falls in community-dwelling older women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 75(4): 447-453.
Bohannon RW, Andrews AW, Thomas MW (1996). Walking speed: reference values and correlates for older adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 24(2): 86-90.
Prince F, Corriveau H HR, Winter D (1997). Gait in the elderly. Gait Posture, 5: 128-135.
KRISS (1997). National Anthropometric Survey of Korea 1997. Korea Research Insti-tute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
Cho SH, Park JM, Kwon OY (2004). Sex differences in three dimensional gait anal-ysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon): 19(2):145-152.
Weiss MJ, Moran MF, Parker ME, Foley JT (2013). Gait analysis of teenagers and young adults diagnosed with autism and severe verbal communication disorders. Front Integr Neurosci, 7: 33.
Beauchet O, Freiberger E, Annweiler C et al (2011). Test-retest reliability of stride time variability while dual tasking in healthy and demented adults with frontotem-poral degeneration. J Neuroeng Rehabil, 8(1): 37.
Auvient B, Berrut G, Touzard C et al (2003). Gait abnormalities in elderly fallers. J Ag-ing Phys Act, 11(1):40-52.
Mbourou GA, Lajoie Y, Teasdale N (2003). Step length variability at gait initiation in elderly fallers and non-fallers, and young adults. Gerontology, 49(1) 21-26.
Lee HJ, Chou LS (2006). Detection of gait instability using the center of mass and center of pressure inclination angles. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87(4): 569-575.
Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Lecordroch Y et al (2009). Walking speed-related changes in stride time variability: effects of de-creased speed. J Neuroeng Rehabil, 6:32.
Herman T, Giladi N, Gurevich T, Hausdorff JM (2005). Gait instability and fractal dy-namics of older adults with a "cautious" gait: why do certain older adults walk fearfully? Gait Posture, 21(2): 178-185.
Winter DA, Patla AE, Frank JS, Walt SE (1990). Biomechanical walking pattern changes in the fit and healthy elderly. Phys Ther, 70(6): 340-7.
Hausdorff JM, Edelberg HK, Mitchell SL, Goldberger AL, Wei JY (1997). Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 78(3): 278-283.
Maki BE (1997). Gait changes in older adults: predictors of falls or indicators of fear. J Am Geriatr Soc, 45(3): 313-320.