Applying Multi-modal and Correlation Analysis on Environmental Parameters and Effect on Cardiopulmonary Endurance of Gender in Elderly People
AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation and interaction between the air pollution’s components with cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people in eight regions by using a multi-modal and correlation analysis.Methods: The data of air pollution was collected in eight selected regions in 2013 to 2015. At the same time, total number of 880 male and female, older than 65 year-olds, were investigated based on the cardiopulmonary endurance measurement in the same regions. The correlation, interaction and multiple linear regressions was tested between the air pollution components in each region and cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people, also between the air pollution components in each region and gender, respectively. In this case, the regression analysis for both hypotheses was conducted.Results: There was a correlation between the level of air pollution and cardiopulmonary endurance, especially for the carbon monoxide which has a strong effect, it was followed by the effect of sulfur dioxide and fine dust, meanwhile nitrogen dioxide seems not to be effective for this measurement test. Furthermore, it was highly unlikely that gender was a significant factor for the correlation between air pollution and cardiopulmonary endurance.Conclusion: The importance and correlation between air pollution and cardiopulmonary capacity is a critical determinant for the public health of a society, while at the same time having a serious impact on certain age groups. Provided that the factor of gender is highly unlikely to modify this impact, it is necessary to study the potential of other factors.
Arena R, Cahalin LP (2014). Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle function in the obese population. Prog Cardiovasc Dis ;56(4):457-64.
Jafari M, Mogharnasi M (2015). The protective effect of different methods of exercise training on plasma levels of nesfatin-1, cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition in overweight and obese females. Modern Care J, 12:61-7.
Shah AS, Langrish JP, Nair H et al (2013). Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet, 382:1039-48.
Hoek G, Krishnan RM, Beelen R, Peters A, Ostro B, Brunekreef B, Kaufman JD (2013). Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio-respiratory mortality: a review. Environ Health, 12(1):43.
Vieira JL, Guimaraes GV, de Andre PA, Saldiva PHN, Bocchi EA (2016). Effects of reducing exposure to air pollution on submaximal cardiopulmonary test in patients with heart failure: Analysis of the randomized, double-blind and controlled FILTER-HF trial. Int J Cardiol, 215:92-7.
Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I, Zeger SL (2000). Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 US cities, 1987–1994. N Engl J Med, 343(24):1742-9.
Atkinson RW, Ross Anderson H, Sunyer J et al (2001). Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 164(10):1860-6.
Katsouyanni K, Touloumi G, Spix C et al (1997). Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: results from time series data from the APHEA project. BMJ, 314(7095):1658-63.
Wong TW, Lau TS, Yu TS, Neller A, Wong SL, Tam W, Pang SW (1999). Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. Occup Environ Med, 56:679-83.
Wong TW, Tam W, Yu T, Wong A (2002). Associations between daily mortalities from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution in Hong Kong, China. Occup Environ Med, 59:30-5.
McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F et al (2002). Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet, 359:386-91.
Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA et al (2010). Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 121(21):2331-78.
Platikanova M, Penkova-Radicheva M (2016). Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria. Iran J Public Health. 45(4):515-22.
Mohammadi H, Cohen D, Babazadeh M, Rokni L (2012). The effects of atmospheric processes on Tehran smog forming. Iran J Public Health, 41(5):1-12.
Ignatius T, Wong TW, Liu HJ (2004). Impact of air pollution on cardiopulmonary fitness in schoolchildren. J Occup Environ Med, 46(9):946-52.
Dabass A, Talbott EO, Venkat A, Rager J, Marsh GM, Sharma RK, Holguin F (2016). Association of exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in adult NHANES participants (2001–2008). Int J Hyg Environ Health, 219(3):301-10.
Volpino P, Tomei F, La Valle C et al (2004). Respiratory and cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise testing in a healthy working population: effects of outdoor traffic air pollution. Occup Med, 54(7).
Kargarfard M, Rouzbahani R, Rezanejad S, Poursafa P (2009). The Effect Of Air Pollution On Cardio Respiratory Perfor-Mance Of Active Individuals. Arya Atheroscler, 5(2).
Udayar SE, Prasad DV (2017). Epidemiological study of socio demographic factors in relation to depression among the elderly people in a rural area of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Commun Med Public Health, 3(1):161-5.
Kok JF, Ridley DA, Zhou Q et al (2017). Smaller desert dust cooling effect estimated from analysis of dust size and abundance. Nature Geoscience, 10(4):274.
Enright PL (2003). The six-minute walk test. Respir Care, 48(8):783-5.
Bind M-A, Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Tarantini L, Suh H, Vokonas P, Schwartz J (2012). Air pollution and markers of coagulation, inflammation and endothelial function: Associations and epigene-environment interactions in an elderly cohort. Epidemiology , 23(2):332.
Rezaeimahmoudi M, Esmaeli A, Gharegozlu A, Shabanian H, Rokni L (2014). Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes. J Environ Health Sci Eng, 12(1):141.