The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractBackground: Metabolic syndrome (MS)is a collection of metabolic disorders which leads to early cardiovascular disease and diabetes type II. Regarding the wide range of its prevalence in Iran, this systematic review and meta-analysis determined the overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Iran.Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and SID were searched using "metabolic syndrome", "syndrome X", "prevalence", and "Iran" keywords from 2002 to 2012. A total of 223 articles were found in which 14 studies were considered for meta-analysis. Data were analyzed using fixed and random model and meta-regression in STATA.Results: The prevalence of MS for those who were 20 yr and older was 23. 8% (95%CI: 18. 99-28. 67) and in under 20 was 10. 98% (95%CI: 7. 75-14. 2). Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in women (25. 5%) than in men (17. 16%) and was increased with increasing age. The most frequent component of metabolic syndrome was low HDL cholesterol (59. 7%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia (39. 5%).Conclusion: Regarding a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its components such as low HDL and high triglyceride in our country, implementation of programs for metabolic syndrome prevention is necessary.
Reaven GM (1988). Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes, 37 (12):1595–1607.
Dandona P, Aljada A, Chaudhuri A et al (2005). Metabolic syndrome: A comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Circulation, 111 (11):1448–54.
Grundy SM (2005). Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation, 112 (17):2735–52.
Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J (2006). Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med, 23 (5):469–80.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001). Executive summary of the third report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA, 285 (19):2486–97.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al (2009). Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation, 120 (16):1640–45.
Ervin RB (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003-2006. Natl Health Stat Report, 13:1–7.
Hu G, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J et al (2004). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. Arch Intern Med, 164 (10):1066–76.
Nestel P, Lyu R, Low LP et al (2007). Metabolic syndrome: recent prevalence in East and Southeast Asian populations. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 16 (2):362–7.
Iravani S, Sabayan B, Sedaghat S, et al (2010). The association of elevated Serum Alanine aminotransferase with metabolic syndrome in a military population in Southern Iran. Iran Cardiovasc Res J, 4 (2):74–80.
Sarrafzadegan N, Kelishadi R, Baghaei A et al (2008). Metabolic syndrome: An emerging public health problem in Iranian Women: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Int J Cardiol, 131 (1):90–6.
Azizi F, Salehi P, Etemadi A et al (2003). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 61 (1):29–37.
Delavari A, Forouzanfar MH, Alikhani S et al (2009). First Nationwide Study of the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Optimal Cutoff Points of Waist Circumference in the Middle East. Diabetes Care, 32 (6):1092–97.
Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M et al (2007). The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. Bull World Health Organ, 85(11): 867–872.
Sharifi F, Mousavinasab SN, Saeini M et al (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an adult urban population of the west of Iran. Exp Diabetes Res, 2009:136501.
Delavar MA, Lye MS, Khor GL et al (2009). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among middle aged women in Babol, Iran. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 40 (3):612–28.
Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R et al (2006). Paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated anthropometric indices: the CASPIAN Study. Acta Paediatr, 95 (12):1625–34.
Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L et al (2006). High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Iranian adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring), 14 (3):377–82.
Jalali R, Vasheghani M, Dabbaghmanesh MH et al (2009). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults in a Rural Area. Iran J Endocrinol Metab, 11 (4):405-14.
Kazemi SA, Koosha A, Sharifi F et al (2008). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in age-group of 17-21 in Zanjan using new definition for Iranian waist circumference and its comparison with ATP III and IDF criteria. Iran J Diabet Metab, 7 (4):393-98.
Barahimi H, Rajaei F, Esmailian R (2008). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in reproductive age women in Shahreza, Iran, 2007. Iran J Diabet Metab, 8 (2):177-84.
Kaykhaei M, Hashemi M, Narouie B et al (2012). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult population from zahedan, southeast iran. Iran J Public Health, 41 (2):70–6.
Rezaianzadeh A, Namayandeh SM, Sadr SM (2012). National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Versus International Diabetic Federation Definition of Metabolic Syndrome, Which One is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease? Int J Prev Med, 3 (8):552–58.
Esmailnasab N, Moradi G, Delaveri A (2012). Risk factors of non-communicable diseases and metabolic syndrome. Iran J Public Health, 41 (7):77–85.
Balkau B, Charles MA, Drivsholm T et al (2002). Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohorts, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Metab, 28 (5):364–76.
Ko GTC, Cockram CS, Chow CC et al (2005). High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese—comparison of three diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 69 (2):160–8.
Urashima M, Wada T, Fukumoto T et al (2005). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a 22,892 japanese population and its association with life style. JMAJ, 48 (9):441–50.
Márquez-Sandoval F, Macedo-Ojeda G, Viramontes-Hörner D et al (2011). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Latin America: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr, 14 (10):1702–13.
Mabry RM, Reeves MM, Eakin EG et al (2010). Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review. Diabet Med, 27 (5):593–7.
Cameron AJ, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ et al (2007). The Metabolic Syndrome in Australia: Prevalence using four definitions. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 77 (3):471–8.
Alegría E, Cordero A, Laclaustra M et al (2005). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population: MESYAS registry. Rev Esp Cardiol, 58 (7):797–806.
Sidorenkov O, Nilssen O, Brenn T et al (2010). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Northwest Russia: the Arkhangelsk study. BMC Public Health, 10:23.
Alzahrania M, Karawagha M, Alshahrani FM et al (2012). Prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome among healthy Saudi Adults. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis, 12 (2):78–80.
Santos AC, Lopes C, Barros H (2004). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the city of Porto. Rev Port Cardiol, 23 (1):45–52.
Johnson WD, Kroon JJ, Greenway FL et al (2009). Prevalence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2006. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 163 (4):371–7.
Li Y, Yang X, Zhai F et al (2008). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Br J Nutr, 99 (3):565–70.
Kelishadi R (2007). Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol Rev, 29:62–76.
Kozan O, Oguza A, Abacia A et al (2007). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Turkish adults. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61 (4):548–53.