Sarcopenia Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment and Depression in Elderly Korean Women
AbstractBackground: Sarcopenia has been implicated in the increased risk for cognitive impairment and depression associated with aging. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship of sarcopenia with cognitive impairment (MCI) and depression in a sample of 201 community-dwelling Korean women (mean age of 74.0±6.8 yr) between 2014 and 2015.Methods: The Korean version of mini-mental state examination and the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale was used to assess cognitive performance and depression, respectively. Grp strength was measured with a dynamometer. Demographics, body composition, education, alcohol consumption, and history of cardiovascular diseases were assessed as covariates.Results: Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of MCI and depression were calculated according to sarcopenia status. Compared to non-sarcopenic, pre-sarcopenic and sarcopenic women had the ORs of 2.160 (95% CI of 0.840 - 5.554, P=0.030) and of 5.493 (95% CI of 1.854 - 16.270, P=0.002) for MCI. The OR of pre-sarcopenia for MCI remained significant (P=0.030) even after adjustments for age, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, and education, while the OR of sarcopenia for MCI was no longer significant (P=0.084) when adjusted for the covariates. Compared to non-sarcopenic, pre-sarcopenic and sarcopenic women had the ORs of 3.750 (95% CI of 1.137 - 12.370, P=0.030) and of 4.687 (95% CI of 1.127 -19.505, P=0.034) for depression. The ORs of pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia for depression remained statistically significant (P=0.020 and P=0.042, respectively) even after adjusted for the covariates Conclusion: Sarcopenia was significantly associated with MCI and depression in otherwise healthy community dwelling elderly Korean women.
World Health Organization. WHO: mental health and older adults – fact sheets. 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en/
Dening T, Barapatre C (2004). Mental health and the ageing population. J Br Menopause Soc, 10(2): 49-53.
Barnes DE, Alexopoulos GS, Lopez OL et al (2006). Depressive symptoms, vascular disease, and mild cognitive impairment: findings from the cardiovascular health study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(3):273-9.
Richard E, Reitz C, Honig LH et al (2013). Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. JAMA Neurol, 70(3):374-82.
Santilli V, Bernetti A, Mangone M, Paoloni M (2014). Clinical definition of sarcopenia. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab, 11(3):177-80.
Ryu M, Jo J, Lee Y, et al (2013). Association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older adults: the fourth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey. Age Ageing, 42(6):734-40.
Vandewoude MF, Alish CJ, Sauer AC, Hegazi RA (2012). Malnutrition-sarcopenia syndrome: is this the future of nutrition screening and assessment for older adults? J Aging Res, 2012:651570.
Hsu YH, Venners SA, Terwedow HA et al (2006). Relation of body composition, fat mass, and serum lipids to osteoporotic fractures and bone mineral density in Chinese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr, 83(1):146-54.
Hsu YH, Liang CK, Chou MY, et al (2014). Association of cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and sarcopenia among healthy older men in the veterans retirement community in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Geriatr Gerontol Int, 14 Suppl 1:102-8.
Korean National Statistical Office (2012). Population projections for Korea: 2010~2060 (Based on the 2010 Census). Korean National Statistical Office, Republic of Korea, 28-35.
Kim YS, Lee Y, Chung YS et al (2012). Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the Korean population based on the fourth Korean national health and nutritional examination surveys. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 67(10):1107-13.
Kim KW, Park JH, Kim MH et al (2011). A nationwide survey on the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in South Korea. J Alzheimers Dis, 23(2):281-91.
Oh DH, Kim SA, Lee HY et al (2013). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Korean adults: results of a 2009 Korean community health survey. J Korean Med Sci, 28(1):128–35.
Buchman AS, Schneider JA, Wilson RS et al (2006). Body mass index in older persons is associated with Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology, 67(11):1949-54.
Cronk BB, Johnson DK, Burns JM, et al (2010). Body mass index and cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 24(2):126-30.
Burns JM, Johnson DK, Watts A et al (2010). Reduced lean mass in early Alzheimer disease and its association with brain atrophy. Arch Neurol, 67(4):428-33.
Lin CC, Lin WY, Meng NH et al (2013).Sarcopenia prevalence and associated factors in an early Taiwanese metropolitan population. J Am Geriatr Soc, 61(3):459-62.
Kim E, Song JH, Hwang JY et al (2010). Obesity and depressive symptoms in elderly Koreans: evidence for the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis from the Ansan Geriatric (AGE) Study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 51(2):231-4.
Byeon CH, Kang KY, Kang SH et al (2016). Sarcopenia is not associated with depression in Korean adults: results from the 2010-2011 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey. Korean J Fam Med, 37(1):37-43.
Kang JY, Kim CH, Sung EJ et al (2016). The Association between frailty and cognition in elderly women. Korean J Fam Med, 37(3):164-70.
Thompson PD, Arena R, Riebe D et al (2013). ACSM's new preparticipation health screening recommendations from ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, ninth edition. Curr Sports Med Rep, 12(4):215-7.
Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J et al (2014). Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian working group for sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 15(2):95-101.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM et al (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing, 39(4):412-23.
Kim TH, Jhoo JH, Park JH et al (2010). Korean version of mini mental status examination for dementia screening and its' short form. Psychiatry Investig, 7(2):102-8.
Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975). ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res, 12(3):189–98.
Cho MJ, Kim KH (1993). Diagnostic validity of the CES-D (Korean Version) in the assessment of DSM-Ⅲ-R major depression. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc, 32(3):381-399.
Radloff LS (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas, 1(3):385-401.
Lee JS, Auyeung TW, Kwok T et al (2007). Associated factors and health impact of sarcopenia in older Chinese men and women: a cross-sectional study. Gerontology, 53(6):404-10.
Nishiguchi S, Yamada M, Shirooka H et al (2016). Sarcopenia as a risk factor for cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults: a 1-year prospective study. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 17(4):372.e5-8.
Huang CY, Hwang AC, Liu LK et al (2016). Association of dynapenia, sarcopenia, and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older Taiwanese. Rejuvenation Res, 19(1):71-8.
Tolea M, Galvin JE (2015). Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance. Clin Interv Aging, 10:663-71.
Wirth R, Smoliner C, Sieber CC, Volkert D (2011). Cognitive function is associated with body composition and nutritional risk of geriatric patients. J Nutr Health Aging, 15(8):706-10.
Abellan van Kan G, Cesari M, Gillette-Guyonnet S et al (2013). Sarcopenia and cognitive impairment in elderly women: results from the EPIDOS cohort. Age Ageing, 42(2):196-202.
van Kan GA, Cesari M, Gillette-Guyonnet S et al (2013). Association of a 7-year percent change in fat mass and muscle mass with subsequent cognitive dysfunction: the EPIDOS-Toulouse cohort. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 4(3):225-9.
Kim NH, Kim HS, Eun CR et al (2011). De-pression is associated with sarcopenia, not central obesity, in elderly Korean men. J Am Geriatr Soc, 59(11):2062-8.
Bouchard DR, Dionne IJ, Brochu M (2009). Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(11):2082-8.
Licastro F, Candore G, Lio D et al (2005). Innate immunity and inflammation in ageing: a key for understanding age-related diseases. Immun Ageing, 2:8.
Moylan JS, Reid MB (2007). Oxidative stress, chronic disease, and muscle wasting. Muscle Nerve, 35(4):411-29.