Iranian Journal of Public Health 2018. 47(2):273-279.

Comparison Characteristics of Family and Demographic of Children with Antenatal Hydronephrosis between 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of Gestation



Background: The aim of this study was comparison characteristics of family and demographics of children with antenatal hydronephrosis, in 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, in order to the need for postnatal management.

Methods: This cross-sectional study described some information from family of children with antenatal hydronephrosis, at the Pediatric Urology Research Center of Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data for 193 children, admitted in 2012-2013, were collected retrospectively. They were allocated to two groups of 2nd and 3rd trimester, based on the time of diagnosis antenatal hydronephrosis. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Chi-Square, Fisher-exact and independent t-test also Mantel-Hanzel test were used. P-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of 193 infants (36 female, 157male), the antenatal hydronephrosis of 76 cases (39.4%) have been diagnosed in the 2nd trimester. In addition, 110 cases (57%) were bilateral and 33 cases (17.1%) had severe antenatal hydronephrosis. Consanguinity marriage, being unilateral or bilateral and the severity of antenatal hydronephrosis were significant with the specific trimester that it has been diagnosed (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Infants with bilateral and severe grade of antenatal hydronephrosis also with the history of consanguinity marriage among their parent will diagnose in the second trimester more than the third trimester and will refer for some surgical correction, relating to other kidney diseases such as vesicoureteral reflux, more than others. Thus, this is a good sign for caring infants.




Antenatal hydronephrosis, Trimesters of pregnancy, Consanguinity marriage

Full Text:



Elder JS (1997). Antenatal hydronephrosis. Fetal and neonatal management. Pediatr Clin North Am, 44(5):1299-321.

Blyth B, Snyder HM, Duckett JW (1993). Antenatal diagnosis and subsequent management of hydronephrosis. J Urol, 149(4):693-8.

Gunn TR, Mora JD, Pease P (1995). Ante-natal diagnosis of urinary tract abnormali-ties by ultrasonography after 28 weeks' gestation: incidence and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 172(2 Pt 1):479-86.

Livera LN, Brookfield DS, Egginton JA, Hawnaur JM (1989). Antenatal ultrasonography to detect fetal renal abnormalities: a prospective screening programme. BMJ, 298(6685):1421-3.

Nguyen HT, Herndon CD, Cooper C et al (2010). The Society for Fetal Urology consensus statement on the evaluation and management of antenatal hydro-nephrosis. J Pediatr Urol, 6(3):212-31.

Sairam S, Al-Habib A, Sasson S, Thilaganathan B (2001). Natural history of fetal hydronephrosis diagnosed on mid-trimester ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 17(3):191-6.

Wollenberg A, Neuhaus TJ, Willi UV, Wisser J (2005). Outcome of fetal renal pelvic dilatation diagnosed during the third trimester. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 25(5):483-8.

Park JM, Bloom DA (1998). The patho-physiology of UPJ obstruction. Current concepts. Urol Clin North Am, 25(2):161-9.

Resnik VM, Budorick NE (1995). Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Renal Disease. Urol Clin North Am, 22:21-30.

Rickwood AM, Harney JV, Jones MO, Oak S (1995). ‘Congenital’ hydronephrosis: limitations of diagnosis by fetal ultraso-nography. Br J Urol, 75(4):529-30.

Helin I, Persson PH (1986). Prenatal diagnosis of urinary tract abnormalities by ultrasound. Pediatrics, 78(5):879-83.

Hindryckx A, De Catte L (2011). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations. Facts Views Vis Obgyn, 3(3):165-74.

Leong SY, Afolabi TM, Tsu L (2016). The Management of Antenatal Hydronephrosis. US Pharm, 41(5):HS2-HS6.

Kim SY, Kim MJ, Yoon CS, Lee MS, Han KH, Lee MJ (2013). Comparison of the reliability of two hydronephrosis grading systems: the Society for Foetal Urology grading system vs. the Onen grading system. Clin Radiol, 68(9):e484-90.

Mandell J (1990 ). Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of obstructive uropathies. Probl Urol, 4:547-54.

Corteville JE, Gray DL, Crane JP (1991). Congenital hydronephrosis: correlation of fetal ultrasonographic findings with infant outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 165(2):384-8.

Lee RS, Cendron M, Kinnamon DD, Nguyen HT (2006). Antenatal hydronephrosis as a predictor of postnatal outcome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 118(2):586-93.

Abedin Zadeh M, Moslemi MK, Kholaseh Zadeh G (2011). Comparison between imipramine and imipramine combined with pseudoephedrine in 5-12-year-old children with uncomplicated enuresis: a double-blind clinical trial. J Pediatr Urol, 7(1):30-3.

Timberlake MD, Herndon CD (2013). Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis--grading systems and management. Nat Rev Urol, 10(11):649-56.

Cheng AM, Phan V, Geary DF, Rosenblum ND (2004). Outcome of isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 158(1):38-40.

Grignon A, Filion R, Filiatrault D et al (1986). Urinary tract dilatation in utero: classification and clinical applications. Radiology, 160(3):645-7.

Ismaili K, Hall M, Donner C et al(2003). Results of systematic screening for minor degrees of fetal renal pelvis dilatation in an unselected population. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 188(1):242-6.

Sinha A, Bagga A, Krishna A et al (2013). Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis. Indian J Nephrol, 23(2):83-97.

Feldman DM, DeCambre M, Kong E et al (2001). Evaluation and follow-up of fetal hydronephrosis. J Ultrasound Med, 20(10):1065-9.

Ek S, Lidefeldt KJ, Varricio L (2007). Fetal hydronephrosis; prevalence, natural history and postnatal consequences in an unselected population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 86(12):1463-6.

Bobrowski RA, Levin RB, Lauria MR, Treadwell MC, Gonik B, Bottoms SF (1997). In utero progression of isolated renal pelvis dilation. Am J Perinatol, 14(7):423-6.

Alconcher LF, Tombesi MM (2012). Natural history of bilateral mild isolated antenatal hydronephrosis conservatively managed. Pediatr Nephrol, 27(7):1119-23.

Babu R, Sai V (2010). Postnatal outcome of fetal hydronephrosis: implications for prenatal counselling. Indian J Urol, 26(1):60-2.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.