Iranian Journal of Public Health 2018. 47(1):49-56.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer among Jordanian Women: A Case-control Study
Mohammad AL QADIRE, Murad ALKHALAILEH, Hedaya HINA

Abstract


Abstract

Background: The interaction between inherited mutated genes and environmental factors is believed to play a crucial role in cancer development. The main aim was to identify lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer among Jordanian women.

Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. Overall, 405 cases and 418 controls, in 3 large hospitals where cancer patients are treated, participated. The prevalence of individual and groups of cancer-related risk factors was estimated descriptively using percentages and odd ratios with their correlated 95% Confidence interval (CI). The predictors of the occurrence of breast cancer were determined using logistic regression to estimate unadjusted association and adjusted association.

Results: Women in the case group (mean=49.2 yr, SD 10.2) were older than those in the control group (mean=45.9, SD 10.9). Physical activity (sufficiently active) (OR=2.76; 95% CI=1.96-3.87) and fruit and vegetable intake (good or optimal) (OR=1.71 95% CI=1.25-2.35) were found to be associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, calcium intake (>3 times a week) (OR=0.51; 95% CI=0.34-0.77) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusion: Lifestyle risk factors were identified, and certain modifications to lifestyle are needed. Women’s awareness of these factors should be raised through appropriate channels, as a priority of the health authorities. Increasing the amount of high-quality research in this area remains one of the best ways to fight breast cancer, reducing its incidence and associated morbidities.

 


Keywords


Lifestyle, Breast cancer, Risk factors, Dietary, Physical activity, Jordan

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References


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