Iranian Journal of Public Health 2018. 47(1):49-56.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer among Jordanian Women: A Case-control Study



Background: The interaction between inherited mutated genes and environmental factors is believed to play a crucial role in cancer development. The main aim was to identify lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer among Jordanian women.

Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. Overall, 405 cases and 418 controls, in 3 large hospitals where cancer patients are treated, participated. The prevalence of individual and groups of cancer-related risk factors was estimated descriptively using percentages and odd ratios with their correlated 95% Confidence interval (CI). The predictors of the occurrence of breast cancer were determined using logistic regression to estimate unadjusted association and adjusted association.

Results: Women in the case group (mean=49.2 yr, SD 10.2) were older than those in the control group (mean=45.9, SD 10.9). Physical activity (sufficiently active) (OR=2.76; 95% CI=1.96-3.87) and fruit and vegetable intake (good or optimal) (OR=1.71 95% CI=1.25-2.35) were found to be associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, calcium intake (>3 times a week) (OR=0.51; 95% CI=0.34-0.77) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusion: Lifestyle risk factors were identified, and certain modifications to lifestyle are needed. Women’s awareness of these factors should be raised through appropriate channels, as a priority of the health authorities. Increasing the amount of high-quality research in this area remains one of the best ways to fight breast cancer, reducing its incidence and associated morbidities.



Lifestyle, Breast cancer, Risk factors, Dietary, Physical activity, Jordan

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