Risk Factors for Breast Cancer among Jordanian Women: A Case-control Study

  • Mohammad AL QADIRE Dept. of Adult Health, Nursing School, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan
  • Murad ALKHALAILEH Dept. of Nursing, Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
  • Hedaya HINA King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan
Keywords: Lifestyle, Breast cancer, Risk factors, Dietary, Physical activity, Jordan


Abstract Background: The interaction between inherited mutated genes and environmental factors is believed to play a crucial role in cancer development. The main aim was to identify lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer among Jordanian women. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. Overall, 405 cases and 418 controls, in 3 large hospitals where cancer patients are treated, participated. The prevalence of individual and groups of cancer-related risk factors was estimated descriptively using percentages and odd ratios with their correlated 95% Confidence interval (CI). The predictors of the occurrence of breast cancer were determined using logistic regression to estimate unadjusted association and adjusted association. Results: Women in the case group (mean=49.2 yr, SD 10.2) were older than those in the control group (mean=45.9, SD 10.9). Physical activity (sufficiently active) (OR=2.76; 95% CI=1.96-3.87) and fruit and vegetable intake (good or optimal) (OR=1.71 95% CI=1.25-2.35) were found to be associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, calcium intake (>3 times a week) (OR=0.51; 95% CI=0.34-0.77) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: Lifestyle risk factors were identified, and certain modifications to lifestyle are needed. Women’s awareness of these factors should be raised through appropriate channels, as a priority of the health authorities. Increasing the amount of high-quality research in this area remains one of the best ways to fight breast cancer, reducing its incidence and associated morbidities.  


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How to Cite
AL QADIRE M, ALKHALAILEH M, HINA H. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer among Jordanian Women: A Case-control Study. Iran J Public Health. 47(1):49-56.
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