Prevalence of Aflatoxin Contamination in Herbs and Spices in Different Regions of Iran
AbstractBackground: Mycotoxins are natural toxins, produced by several fungal species and are associated with morbidity or even mortality in animals, plants, and humans. In this study, 120 samples of herbs and spices in both bulk and packaged forms were prepared in order to measure aflatoxin level in different regions of IranMethods: The aflatoxin was extracted during Mar to May 2015, using 80% methanol and then purified via immunoaffinity column. Measurements were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography, equipped with a fluorescence detection system at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 435 nm, respectively.Results: The highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in food products was attributed to aflatoxin B1 (30.8%). In addition, the highest prevalence of aflatoxin contamination was reported in red pepper (100%). Examination of effective factors indicated the substantial impact of moisture on aflatoxin level (P=0.046).Conclusion: Even at low levels of aflatoxin, contamination could be a serious threat, given the prevalent use of spices (either raw or not) as ingredients in food preparation. Therefore, regular monitoring of spices, especially chili pepper, is highly recommended.
Murphy PA, Hendrich S, Landgren C, Bryant CM (2006). Food mycotoxins: an update. J Food Sci, 71(5): R51-65.
Skendi A, Irakli MN, Papageorgiou MD (2016). Optimized and validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins in cereals. J Sep Sci, 39(8): 1425-32.
Tosun H, Arslan R (2013). Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs. Sci World J, 2013(10): 1-4.
Oancea S, Stoia M (2008). Mycotoxins: a review of toxicology, analytical methods and health risks. Univ Cibiensis Ser, 7(1): 19-36.
Cancer IAfRo, Cancer IAfRo (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. France: International Agency for Research on Cancer Lyon.
Ozbey F, Kabak B (2012). Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in spices. Food Control, 28(2): 354-61.
Pesavento G, Ostuni M, Calonico C, Rossi S, Capei R, Lo Nostro A (2016). Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide. J Prev Med Hyg, 57(2): E102-9.
Commission EC (2002). Commission Regulation (EC) No. 472/2002 of 12 March 2002. Brussels,, Belgium: L, 75: 18-20.
Giorni P, Magan N, Pietri A, Bertuzzi T, Battilani P (2007). Studies on Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from maize in northern Italy. Int J Food Microbiol, 113(3): 330-8.
Fazekas B, Tar A, Kovacs M (2005). Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A content of spices in Hungary. Food Addit Contam, 22(9): 856-63.
Romagnoli B, Menna V, Gruppioni N, Bergamini C (2007). Aflatoxins in spices, aromatic herbs, herb-teas and medicinal plants marketed in Italy. Food Control, 18(6): 697-701.
Aydin A, Erkan ME, Başkaya R, Ciftcioglu G (2007). Determination of aflatoxin B 1 levels in powdered red pepper. Food Control, 18(9): 1015-8.
Khoshpey B, Farhud DD, Zaini F (2011). Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity. Iran J Public Health, 40(4): 1-30.
Hedayati MT, Omran SM, Soleymani A, Armaki MT (2016). Aflatoxins in food products in Iran: A review of the literature. Jundishapur J Microbiol, 9(7): e33235.
Kachuei R, Emami M (2007). Isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from thorns and thistles in isfahan and adjacent cities. SSU J, 15(3): 74–84.
Kazemi A, Mohtadinia J, Mahdavi R et al (2009). Survey of storage wheat contamination to zearalenone producer fusarium sp. Int east azarbaidgjan. Sci J Zanjan Univ Med Sci, 17(68): 53–63.
Zare M, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Ranjbar-Bahadori S, Allameh A, Razzaghi-Abyaneh M (2008). Comparative study of the major Iranian cereal cultivars and some selected spices in relation to support Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Iran Biomed J, 12(4): 229-36.