Iranian Journal of Public Health 2017. 46(10):1309-1317.

East Asian’s Perception of Western Countries’ Urban Hygiene and Public Health in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Review Article
You-Ki MIN, Sam-Hun PARK

Abstract


Background: Modern hygiene administration in Japan and Korea began to be organized in the end of 19th Century by accepting Western public health system. Then, how did the elite in these two East Asian countries recognize and understand Western public health movement in the 19th Century? Answering this question could provide historical knowledge about the background of starting modern hygiene administration in East Asia. 

Methods: To understand the birth of modern public health system in East Asia, Japanese and Korean elite’s records on Western countries were reviewed. The documents examined were The Iwakura Embassy 1871-73 published in 1878 as an account of Japanese Meiji government’s special ambassador sent to the United States and Europe, and Seoyugyeonmun (observations on travels in the West) published in 1895 by a Korean intelligent.

Results: The Iwakura Embassy 1871-73 suggested modern water supply and drainage, roadside trees, and parks, to prevent contagious diseases and improve urban hygiene. Seoyugyeonmun emphasizes that hygiene is an important task that civilized government has to be in charge. So, specific tasks of public health should be imposed on sanitary police.

Conclusion: Public health was one of the major factors that contributed to national prosperity in the 19th century. Such recognition enabled organization of hygiene administration to be part of the project pursuing enlightenment, modernization, and civilization at the end of the 19th century in Japan and Korea.

 


Keywords


Public health, Urban hygiene, Governmentality, Miasma theory, Sanitization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rosen G (1974). From Medical Police to Social Medicine. Science History Publications, New York.

Foucault M (2008). Le Gouvernement de soi et des autres I, 1982-1983. Gallimard, Paris.

Rosen G (1993). A History of Public Health and the Modern State. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Möller C (2005). Medizinalpolizei. Die Theorie des staatlichen Gesundheitswesens im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. (Studien zu Policey und Policeywissenschaft). Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main.

Franck J-P (1779-1819). System einer vollständigen medicinischen Polizey. 6Bde. Mannheim, Wien.

Tournay V (2007). Le concept de police médicale. D’une aspiration militante à la production d’une objectivité administrative. Politix, 77: 173-200.

Weiner D-B (1970). Le Droit de l’homme à la santé: une belle idée devant l’Assemblée Constituante, 1790-91. Clio Medica, 5: 209-23.

Julia C, Valleron AJ (2011). Louis-Rene Villerme (1782–1863), a pioneer in social epidemiology: re-analysis of his data on comparative mortality in Paris in the early 19th century. J Epidemiol Community Health, 65(8): 666-70.

Engels F (1845). Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England. Otto Wigand, Leipzig.

Chadwick E (1842). Report to Her Majesty’s principal secretary of state for the Home Department, from the Poor Law Commissioners, on an inquiry into the sanitary condition of the labouring population of Great Britain. London.

Chevallier F (2012). La Naissance du Paris Moderne: l’Essor des Politique d’Hygiène (1788-1855). BIU Santé, Paris.

Hempel S (2006). The Medical Detective: John Snow, Cholera, and the Mystery of the Broad Street Pump. Granta Books, London.

Pasteur L (1862). Sur les corpuscules organiseˊs qui existent dans l’atmospheˋre: examen de la doctrine des geˊneˊrations spontaneˊes. Hachette, Paris.

Salomon-Bayet C. ed (1986). Pasteur et la Révolution pastorienne. Payot, Paris.

Gaillard J (1997). Paris, la ville 1852-1870. L’Harmattan, Paris.

Kim Y-H (2009). Department of Medical Practice at the Ministry of Education and Its Hygiene Policy in Modern Japan. The Korean Society for Urban History, 2: 109-115. [Korean article].

Fukuda M H (1993). Public Health in Modern Japan: From Regimen to Hygiene. Clio Medica, 26: 385-402.

Park Y-J (2005). The origin of Korean modern medical system. Haean, Seoul. [Korean book].

Park S-H (2014). A Study of The Iwakura Embassy’ Historical Meaning. Korea Association of Japanology, 98: 473-88. [Korean article].

Min Y-K (2013). The Iwakura Embassy and its Experience and Understanding of the French Modern Cities. SA-CHONG, 80: 59-90. [Korean article].

Kunitake K ([1878 Japanese edition], 2002). The Iwakura Embassy 1871-73: A True Account of the Ambassador Extraordinary & Plenipotentiary’s Journey of Observation Through the United States of America and Europe. The Japan Documents, Chiba. [Park S-H eds (2011). Korean Translation edition].

Yu K-C (1887). Seoyugyeonmun (Observations on Travels in the West). Kojunsha, Tokyo.

Grmek M D (1988). Storia del pensiero medico occidentale, 3. Dall’ etaˋ romantica alla medicina moderna. Laterza, Roma-Bari.

Murard L & Zylberman P (1996). L’hygieˋne dans la Reˊpublique: la santeˊ publique en France ou l’utopie contrarieˊe 1870-1918. Fayard, Paris.

Bazin H (2000). The Eradication of Smallpox. Academic Press, London.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.