Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations in the Drinking Groundwater of Shiraz City, South-central Iran by Statistical Models
AbstractBackground: Nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) contaminations of groundwater are considered as one of the major health challenges in recent decades. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the drinking groundwater of Shiraz, South-central Iran by statistical models.Methods: From 43 active wells of Shiraz drinking water supplies, 344 samples were collected in the high and low precipitation seasons from 2010 to 2014. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were tested by a DR6000 spectrophotometer, and the results were analyzed by different software, including SPSS ver. 20, ArcView GIS 9.3. It was done by variable and multivariate regression models. In all tests, the level of significance was set at 5%.Results: Nitrate concentrations in the samples were in the range of 5 to 72 mg/l, and 38 (11%) of the samples had nitrate concentrations above the standard level 10 mg/L as nitrogen. The annual mean concentration of nitrite varied from 0 to 0.025 mg/l. There was an inverse correlation between nitrate and nitrite concentrations and well depths. Conclusion: The most important reason for the high concentration of nitrate in Shiraz drinking groundwater supplies were lack of health privacy of wells, the impact of residential construction around drinking water wells, and placement of wells in the direction of groundwater flow.
Jianmin B, Caihong L, Zhenzhen Z, Rui W, Yue G (2016). Hydro-Geochemical Characteristics and Health Risk Evaluation of Nitrate in groundwater. Pol J Environ Stud, 25(2): 521-527.
Siqing X, Fohua Z, Yanhao Z, Haixiang Li, Xin YA (2010). Bio-reduction of nitrate from ground water using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor. J Environ Sci (China), 22(2): 257–262.
Nas BI, Berktay A (2006). Ground water contamination by nitrates in the city of Konya, (Turkey): A GIS perspective. J Environ Manage, 79(1): 30–37.
Ward MH, Heineman EF, Markin RS, Weisenburger DD (2008). Adenocarcinoma of the stomach and esophagus and drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite. Intern J Occup Environ Health, 14(3): 193–7.
Devendra P, Yashwant B. K, Pradeep PK, Vilas RC (2016). Nitrate Contamination Indexing of Subsurface Water of Upper Wainganga Drainage Basin of India. Intern J Innov Res Sci, EnginTechnol, 5(1); 161-170.
Li Xi, Zhao Ch, Wang Bi, Feng Ga (2005). Regional Differentiation of Non-Point Source Pollution of Agriculture-Derived Nitrate Nitrogen in groundwater in Northern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 107(2-3): 211-220.
Mclay CD, Ragten R, Sparling G (2001). Selvarajah N. Predicting groundwater Nitrate Concentrations in Region of Mixed Agricultural Landuse. Environ Pollut, 115(2): 191-204.
Reza AF, Seyed AA, Mohamad MD, et al (2016). Zoning of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentration in Ground water Using Geographic Information System (GIS), Case Study: Drinking Water Wells in Yazd City. J Geosci Environ Prot, 4:91-96.
Munster Je, Hanson Gi, Bokuniewicz He (1987). Contribution of tap water to mineral intakes of Canadian preschool children. Arch Environ Health, 42(3): 165-9.
Neri LC, Johanson HL, Hewitt D, Marier J, Langer N (1985). Magnesium and certain other element and cardiovascular disease. Sci Total Environ, 42(1-2):49-75.
World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2008
Institute of standard and industrial research of Iran (ISIRI). Standard number 1053: Drinking Water, physical and chemical characteristics, 2009. [In Persian]
Lim JW, Bae GO, Kaown D, Lee KK (2010). Prediction of Groundwater Contamination with Multivariate Regression and Probabilistic Capture Zones. J Environ Qual, 39(5):1594-603.
Ramasamy N, Krishnan P, Bernard JC, Ritter WF (2003). Modeling nitrate concentration in ground water using regression and neural networks. Food Res Econ. http://www1.udel.edu/FREC/PUBS/SP03-01.pdf
Nolan IS (2001). Relating nitrogen sources and aquifer susceptibility to nitrate in shallow ground waters of the United States. Ground Water, 39 (2): 290–299.
Kristin KG, Richard MV (2005). Predicting Ground Water Nitrate Concentration from Land Use. Ground Water, 43 (3): 343–352.
Woo JC, Gwang HH, Sang ML, Goon TL, Kwang SY, Soo MC, Hee-MR (2007). Impact of land-use types on nitrate concentration and d15 Nin unconﬁned groundwater in rural areas of Korea. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 120: 259–268.
Stigter TY, Ribeiro L, Carvalho Dilla AMM (2008). Building factorial regression models to explain and predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater under agricultural land. J Hydrol, 357: 42-56.
Munster Je, Hanson Gi, Bokuniewicz He (2003). The use of Major Chemistry In Detemining Nitrate Sources of Ground Water The Suffolk County, Long Island. World Appl Sci, 19(2): 35-46.
Lee SM, Min KD, Woo NC, et al (2003). Statistical models for the assessment of nitrate contamination in urban ground water using GIS. Env Geol, 44 (2): 210–221.
Jin Za, Chen Yi, wang Fe, et al (2004). Detection of nitrate sources in urban ground water by isotopic andchemical indicators, Hangzhou City, China. Env Geol, 45 (7): 1017–1024.
Hudak PF, Sanmanee S (2003). Spatial Patterns of Nitrate, Chloride, Sulfate, and Fluoride Concentrations In The Woodbine Aquifer of North-Central Texas. Environ Monit Assess, 82 (3): 311–320.
Khosravr DA, Afeyooni M, Moosavi F(2006). Assessment Variation of Nitrate Concentration of Groundwater in the borderof Zayande Rood River, Isfahan Province. Mohit Shenasi J, 39(2). 33-40 [In Persian].
ObeidatM, Ahmad FY, Hamouri NA, Massadeh AM, Athamneh FS (2008). Assessment of nitrate contamination of karst springs, BaniKanana, northern Jordan. Rev Mex Cienc Geol, 25(3):426-437.
Ostovari Y, Beigi Harchegani H, Davoodian A. Spatial variation in nitrate of groundwater in Lordegan Plains. Irrigation and Water Management, 2012; 2(1): 67-55 [In Persian].