Bentonite Clay as a Natural Remedy: A Brief Review
AbstractBackground: From old times, the human kind has used clays, externally or internally, for maintaining body health or treating some diseases. Meanwhile there are few scientific articles reviewing the beneficial effects of clays on body function. Bentonite clay is one of the available clays in nature, used as traditional habits, and remedies in many cultures. Methods: These articles explored among 2500 scientific articles published in PubMed to sort the scientific works have been done on the effects of this clay on body function (it was about 100 articles). Results: Bentonite has a broad range of action on different parts of body.Conclusion: As traditional remedies seem to have a deep root in maintaining body health, it merits doing more research works on bentonite clay and its impacts on body function.
Young SL, Sherman PW, Lucks JB, Pelto GH (2011). Why on earth? Evaluating hypotheses about the physiological functions of human geophagy. Q Rev Biol, 86:97-120.
Afriyie-Gyawu E, Mackie J, Dash B et al (2005). Chronic toxicological evaluation of dietary NovaSil clay in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Addit Contam, 22:259-69.
Afriyie-Gyawu E, Wang Z, Ankrah NA et al (2008). NovaSil clay does not affect the concentrations of vitamins A and E and nutrient minerals in serum samples from Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, 25:872-84.
Wang JS, Luo H, Billam M et al (2005). Short-term safety evaluation of processed calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) in humans. Food Addit Contam, 22:270-9.
Elmore AR, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (2003). Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. Int J Toxicol, 22 Suppl 1:37-102.
Mitchell NJ, Kumi J, Aleser M et al (2014). Short-term safety and efficacy of calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 91:777-85.
Williams LB, Haydel SE, Ferrell RE (2009). Bentonite, Bandaids, and Borborygmi. Elements (Que), 5:99-104.
Carson MS, Smith TK (1983). Role of bentonite in prevention of T-2 toxicosis in rats. J Anim Sci, 57:1498-506.
Dvorak M (1989). [Ability of bentonite and natural zeolite to adsorb aflatoxin from liquid media]. Vet Med (Praha), 34:307-16.
Schell TC, Lindemann MD, Kornegay ET, Blodgett DJ (1993). Effects of feeding aflatoxin-contaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver function, and mineral metabolism. J Anim Sci, 71:1209-18.
Nowar M, El-Gaafary M, Tawfeek M, Ibrahim Z (2000). Aflatoxicosis in rabbits: Effectiveness of Egyptian raw bentonite in prevention or diminution the detrimental effects of naturally aflatoxin contaminated diets. Mycotoxin Res, 16 Suppl 2:199-203.
Dos Anjos FR, Ledoux DR, Rottinghaus GE, Chimonyo M (2015). Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks. Br Poult Sci, 56:459-69.
Fowler J, Li W, Bailey C (2015). Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B(1) in Starter Broiler Chicks. Toxins (Basel), 7:3455-64.
Eckhardt JC, Santurio JM, Zanette RA et al (2014). Efficacy of a Brazilian calcium montmorillonite against toxic effects of dietary aflatoxins on broilers reared to market weight. Br Poult Sci, 55:215-20.
Jaynes WF, Zartman RE (2011). Aflatoxin toxicity reduction in feed by enhanced binding to surface-modified clay additives. Toxins (Basel), 3:551-65.
Robinson A, Johnson NM, Strey A et al (2012). Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B(1) exposure in rats and humans. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, 29:809-18.
Mitchell NJ, Kumi J, Johnson NM et al (2013). Reduction in the urinary aflatoxin M1 biomarker as an early indicator of the efficacy of dietary interventions to reduce exposure to aflatoxins. Biomarkers, 18:391-8.
Cruz-Guzman M, Celis R, Hermosin MC et al (2005). Adsorption of pesticides from water by functionalized organobentonites. J Agric Food Chem, 53:7502-11.
Peng X, Wang J, Fan B, Luan Z (2009). Sorption of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. J Hazard Mater, 168:210-4.
Dasta JF (1978). Paraquat poisoning: a review. Am J Hosp Pharm, 35:1368-72.
Okonek S, Setyadharma H, Borchert A, Krienke EG (1982). Activated charcoal is as effective as fuller's earth or bentonite in paraquat poisoning. Klin Wochenschr, 60:207-10.
McKenzie RA (1991). Bentonite as therapy for Lantana camara poisoning of cattle. Aust Vet J, 68:146-8.
Yu DY, Li XL, Li WF (2008). Effect of montmorillonite superfine composite on growth performance and tissue lead level in pigs. Biol Trace Elem Res, 125:229-35.
Ivan M, Dayrell Mde S, Hidiroglou M (1992). Effects of bentonite and monensin on selected elements in the stomach and liver of fauna-free and faunated sheep. J Dairy Sci, 75:201-8.
Kim SG, Dai W, Xu Z, Li G (2011). Effects of montmorillonite on alleviating dietary Cd-induced oxidative damage in carp (Carassius auratus). Biol Trace Elem Res, 141:200-6.
Mahrous KF, Hassan AM, Radwan HA, Mahmoud MA (2015). Inhibition of cadmium- induced genotoxicity and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia fish by Egyptian and Tunisian montmorillonite clay. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 119:140-7.
Dugarte-Stavanja M, Smith GS, Edrington TS, Hallford DM (1997). Failure of dietary bentonite clay, Silent Herder mineral supplement, or parenteral Banamine to alleviate locoweed toxicosis in rats. J Anim Sci, 75:1867-75.
Marks JG, Jr., Fowler JF, Jr., Sheretz EF, Rietschel RL (1995). Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite. J Am Acad Dermatol, 33:212-6.
Epstein WL (1989). Topical prevention of poison ivy/oak dermatitis. Arch Dermatol, 125:499-501.
Fowler JF Jr (2001). A skin moisturizing cream containing Quaternium-18-Bentonite effectively improves chronic hand dermatitis. J Cutan Med Surg, 5:201-5.
Adib-Hajbaghery M, Mahmoudi M, Mashaiekhi M (2014). The effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. J Res Med Sci, 19:314-8.
Mahmoudi M, Adib-Hajbaghery M, Mashaiekhi M (2015). Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial. Indian J Med Res, 142:742-6.
Mircioiu C, Voicu VA, Ionescu M et al (2013). Evaluation of in vitro absorption, decontamination and desorption of organophosphorous compounds from skin and synthetic membranes. Toxicol Lett, 219:99-106.
Coelho GL, Dornelas CB, Soares KC et al (2008). Preparation and evaluation of inclusion complexes of commercial sunscreens in cyclodextrins and montmorillonites: performance and substantivity studies. Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 34:536-46.
Movahedi MM, Alipour A, Mortazavi SA, Tayebi M (2014). Production of a Novel Mineral-based Sun Lotion for Protecting the Skin from Biohazards of Electromagnetic Radiation in the UV Region. J Biomed Phys Eng, 4:9-12.
Sandri G, Bonferoni MC, Ferrari F et al (2014). Montmorillonite-chitosan-silver sulfadiazine nanocomposites for topical treatment of chronic skin lesions: in vitro biocompatibility, antibacterial efficacy and gap closure cell motility properties. Carbohydr Polym, 102:970-7.
Ivan M, Dayrell MD, Mahadevan S, Hidiroglou M (1992). Effects of bentonite on wool growth and nitrogen metabolism in fauna-free and faunated sheep. J Anim Sci, 70:3194-202.
Damrau F (1961). The value of bentonite for diarrhea. Med Ann Dist Columbia, 30:326-8.
Ducrotte P, Dapoigny M, Bonaz B, Siproudhis L (2005). Symptomatic efficacy of beidellitic montmorillonite in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 21:435-44.
Hu C, Song J, You Z, Luan Z, Li W (2012). Zinc oxide-montmorillonite hybrid influences diarrhea, intestinal mucosal integrity, and digestive enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Biol Trace Elem Res, 149:190-6.
Wiles M, Huebner H, Afriyie-Gyawu E et al (2004). Toxicological evaluation and metal bioavailability in pregnant rats following exposure to clay minerals in the diet. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 67:863-74.
Clarke G, Stilling RM, Kennedy PJ et al (2014). Minireview: Gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ. Mol Endocrinol, 28:1221-38.
Smirnova VV, Tananova ON, Shumakova AA et al (2012). [Toxicological and sanitary characterization of bentonite nanoclay]. Gig Sanit, 76-8.
Zhang YT, Wang XF, Long LH, Liu T, Cao YX (2009). Montmorillonite adsorbs creatinine and accelerates creatinine excretion from the intestine. J Pharm Pharmacol, 61:459-64.
Cao YX, Long LH, Ma Z et al (2009). [Effect of montmorillonite on diffussion of urea between blood and intestine and on absorption of intestine in rats]. Zhong Yao Cai, 32:249-53.
Haydel SE, Remenih CM, Williams LB (2008). Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother, 61:353-61.
Schiffenbauer M, Stotzky G (1982). Adsorption of coliphages T1 and T7 to clay minerals. Appl Environ Microbiol, 43:590-6.
Placha D, Rosenbergova K, Slabotinsky J et al (2014). Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection. J Hazard Mater, 271:65-72.
Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus WM et al (2010). Green synthesis of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites using the UV irradiation method and evaluation of antibacterial activity. Int J Nanomedicine, 5:875-87.
Shameli K, Bin Ahmad M, Zargar M et al (2011). Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity. Int J Nanomedicine, 6:271-84.
Hoffeld JT (1983). Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production in vitro by silica, talc, bentonite or Corynebacterium parvum: involvement of peroxidative processes. Eur J Immunol, 13:364-9.
Schwarz T, Werner E (1990). [The effect of long term bentonite administration on mixed element metabolism in dwarf goats]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed, 44:493-501.
Southern LL, Ward TL, Bidner TD, Hebert LG (1994). Effect of sodium bentonite or hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on growth performance and tibia mineral concentrations in broiler chicks fed nutrient-deficient diets. Poult Sci, 73:848-54.
Dong Y, Feng SS (2005). Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)/montmorillonite nanoparticles for oral delivery of anticancer drugs. Biomaterials, 26:6068-76.
Kevadiya BD, Patel TA, Jhala DD et al (2012). Layered inorganic nanocomposites: a promising carrier for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 81:91-101.
Kevadiya BD, Chettiar SS, Rajkumar S et al (2013). Evaluation of clay/poly (L-lactide) microcomposites as anticancer drug, 6-mercaptopurine reservoir through in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress markers and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 112:400-7.
Zhang M, Li X, Lu Y et al (2011). Studying the genotoxic effects induced by two kinds of bentonite particles on human B lymphoblast cells in vitro. Mutat Res, 720:62-6.
Cervini-Silva J, Ramirez-Apan MT, Kaufhold S et al (2016). Role of bentonite clays on cell growth. Chemosphere, 149:57-61.
Cai Y, Meng XF, Cao YX et al (2006). Montmorillonite ameliorates hyperthyroidism of rats and mice attributed to its adsorptive effect. Eur J Pharmacol, 551:156-61.
Mortazavi SM, Atefi A, Roshan-Shomal P et al (2009). Development of a novel mineral based haemostatic agent consisting of a combination of bentonite and zeolite minerals. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 21:3-7.
Mortazavi S, Tavasoli A, Atefi M et al (2013). CoolClot, a novel hemostatic agent for controlling life-threatening arterial bleeding. World J Emerg Med, 4:123-7.
Arora A, Padua GW (2010). Review: nanocomposites in food packaging. J Food Sci, 75:R43-9.
Gedikoglu Y, Gedikoglu G, Berkin G et al (2012). Employing volcanic tuff minerals in interior architecture design to reduce microbial contaminants and airborne fungal carcinogens of indoor environments. Toxicol Ind Health, 28:708-19.
Murphy EJ, Roberts E, Anderson DK, Horrocks LA (1993). Cytotoxicity of aluminum silicates in primary neuronal cultures. Neuroscience, 57:483-90.
Murphy EJ, Roberts E, Horrocks LA (1993). Aluminum silicate toxicity in cell cultures. Neuroscience, 55:597-605.
Hornfeldt CS, Westfall ML (1996). Suspected bentonite toxicosis in a cat from ingestion of clay cat litter. Vet Hum Toxicol, 38:365-6.
Bennett A, Stryjewski G (2006). Severe hypokalemia caused by oral and rectal administration of bentonite in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Emerg Care, 22:500-2.